1. General Outline and Reasons
The available information about the migration of Cappadocians to Smyrna dates from the mid-18th century. The relative delay in comparison with the migration to Constantinople seems absolutely natural, since Smyrna developed later. The general increase in migration from Cappadocia in the 18th century must have also encouraged movement to both earlier and new destinations.
Immigrants from the regions of Kaisareia (Kayseri) and Ikonio (Konya) and, in particular, the settlements of Androniki, Kermir, Talaş, Stefana, Kaisareia and Sazalca, went to Smyrna. The settlements of Enehil, Sarmusakli, Çat, Kara Coren, Çuhur, Taşlık, Tavlosun, Delmoso and Çarkılı were added in the 19th century.
The reasons that made the people migrate, as it happened in the migration to Constantinople, were the limited economic potential in the places of origin, as well as the emergence of new economic centres –like Smyrna–, which attracted the immigrants. Other reasons were the improvement of the road network and the development of the railway network in the 19th century. While Smyrna was a destination for the immigrants already from the second half of the 18th century, it seems that the city became a key attraction point in the 19th century. This is obvious in the increase of the settlements that sent immigrants to Smyrna, as well as in the important increase of the immigrants' numbers. Thus, in 1834-1835, Smyrna and Kasaba absorbed 26.8% of the immigrants from Androniki, while Constantinople 23.1%.1
In the 1860s there was a further increase in the number of immigrants; they headed not only for Smyrna and Kasaba, but for settlements in the wider area. This was related to the development of cotton farming and trading in the area as well as the construction of the railway line Smyrna-Aydin in 1866. The train facilitated the transportation of people and goods from areas that were not previously oriented to Smyrna due to the high cost of transportation. In 1874, people from Androniki were already settled in Aydın, Bayındır, Nazilli, Ödemiş and elsewhere.2
2. Settlement and Migration Patterns
The immigrants became involved into trade and several other sectors of economy.3 As regards their settlement and migration patterns, the practices were similar to those followed by their compatriots settled in Constantinople. Migration mainly concerned the male members of the family and started at an early age. The networks of relatives and compatriots were very helpful for the newcomers. They maintained contact with their places of origin, while they would return there regularly. At some moment later, the entire family would eventually follow the immigrant. Although the younger members usually went to a place where a relative already was, there were members of the same family who settled in different cities. This happened when the firms established by the immigrants expanded to more than one commercial centre. For example, members of the same family from Androniki were settled in both Smyrna and some cities of the Pontus in 1834-1835.4
There were also some differences in comparison with the migration of Cappadocians to Constantinople: according to the sources, the immigrants did not settle in Smyrna ‘en masse, as it happened in Constantinople with the immigrants from İncesu, Neapolis (Nevşehir), etc’.5 It is possible that the writer implies that the immigrants did not settle in neighbourhoods according to their place of origin. However, the neighbourhood of Arağaç was inhabited by Cappadocians, who were unskilled workers.6
Finally, mixed marriages between immigrants from Cappadocia and locals are said to have been more frequent than in Constantinople, a fact that helped the immigrants assimilate more easily into the society of the place of reception.7
1. Ρενιέρη, Ει., "Ανδρονίκιο: Ένα καππαδοκικό χωριό κατά το 19ο αιώνα", Μνήμων 15 (1993), p. 30.
2. Ρενιέρη, Ει., "Ανδρονίκιο: Ένα καππαδοκικό χωριό κατά το 19ο αιώνα", Μνήμων 15 (1993), pp. 40-41.
3. Αναγνωστοπούλου, Σ., Μικρά Ασία, 19ος αι.-1919. Οι Ελληνορθόδοξες Κοινότητες από το Μιλλέτ των Ρωμιών στο Ελληνικό Έθνος (Athens 1997), pp. 236-237.
4. Ρενιέρη, Ει., "Ανδρονίκιο: Ένα καππαδοκικό χωριό κατά το 19ο αιώνα", Μνήμων 15 (1993), p. 32.
5. Τσαλίκογλου, Ε., Οι εν διασπορά Καππαδόκες: Βίος και δραστηριότητες αυτών (Athens 1954, typed manuscript deposited at the Centre for Asia Minor Studies), pp. 217-218.
6. Α.Κ.Μ.Σ., Ιωνία, Περιοχή Σμύρνης, Ι/1 (Smyrna).
7. Τσαλίκογλου, Ε., Οι εν διασπορά Καππαδόκες: Βίος και δραστηριότητες αυτών (Athens 1954, typed manuscript deposited at the Centre for Asia Minor Studies), pp. 216-217.