Followers and supporters of patriarch Arsenios Autoreianos, who had excommunicated Michael VIII Palaiologos. Michael managed to get rid of Arsenios in 1265; from that time, Arsenios’ followers were at odds with the Patriarchate of Constantinople, refusing to recognize Arsenios’ successors to the patriarchal throne. Politically they supported the Lascarid dynasty and opposed the dynasty of the Palaiologoi. The dispute was resolved in 1310.
doukas (lat. dux)
Antiquity: Roman military commander who, in some provinces, combined military and civil functions.Buzantium: a higher military officer. From the second half of the 10th c. the title indicates the military comander of a larger district. After the 12th c., doukes were called the governors of small themes.
1) High-ranking official (third in the military hierarchy after the protomastoras and megas stratopedarches).2) Commander of fleet, admiral (from the Venetian contestabile).3) Megas konostaulos indicates as high military official from the 13th century, head of the Latin mercenaries.
A high-ranking dignity, which from Justinian I was conferred on members of the imperial family and on foreign princes. During the 11th c. it was conferred on several generals, not belonging to the imperial family.
Supreme military commander of the imperial army. High-ranking title which was generally given to close relatives of the emperor.