1. Many cities flourished in Pisidia from the Hellenistic to the Late Imperial Period and their destinies were intertwined.
2. For this reason it is called today "Area of the Lakes".
3. Even nowadays there are two springs in the archaeological site, one in the potters' district and a second to the nymphaeum of the imperial years.
4. Water reached the city through aqueducts on the east and west. Regarding the complex water supply system of Sagalassos, see Steegen, A. et al, "The Water Supply to Sagalassos", in Μ. Waelkens, L. Loots (ed.), Sagalassos V. Report on the Survey and Excavation Campaigns of 1996 and 1997 (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographie 11A and B, Leuven 2000) pp. 635-649.
5. The quarry from which they excavated the limestone was on the east of the city, at a distance of 2 kilometres.
6. The dense population of the city and the intensive operation of the pottery workshops led to the gradual deforestation of the surrounding areas already from antiquity.
7. The corn is frequently appeared in coins, mainly the coins minted by Valerianus I (253-260 AD) and Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD). About the theory this relates this iconographic type with the supply of the Roman legions, see Weiss, P., "Pisidien: eine historische Landschaft im Lichte ihrer Münzprägung", in. Schwertheim (ed.), Forschungen in Pisidien (Αsia Minor Studien 6, Münster 1992) pp.160-163.
8. In close proximity to the city there were reserves of clay of excellent quality. Regarding the local styles of red coloured pottery, see Poblome, J., Sagalassos Red Slip Ware. Typology and Chronology (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 2, Turnhout 1999) and Degeest, R., The Common Wares of Sagalassos. Typology and Chronology (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 3, Turnhout 2000).
9. The ending of the placename "-ssos", made some researchers consider it as evidence of human presence in the area of the city already from the 3rd millennium or even earlier. In spite of all these, the ending is common in the names in other Pisidian cities, which emerge on the historic foreground in the Hellenistic Period, such as Ariassos and Pednelissos. See Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos. History and Archaeology”, in M. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1991) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 41, note 42.
10. Sagalassos during the historic years was probably identified with the mountainous city "Salawassa", which is mentioned in Hittite sources. About the most recent findings of archaeological research regarding the first traces of habitation in the city, see Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos and Pisidia during the late Bronze Age”, in M. Waelkens, L.Loots (ed.), Sagalassos V. Report on the Survey and Excavation Campaigns of 1996 and 1997 (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 11A and B, Leuven 2000) pp. 473-485.
11. The sources mention a rebellion of the Pisidian cities against the Persians, but without a special mention to the city. Xenophon, Anabasis. 1.1.11.
12. After the battle of Granicus and the liberation of the Greek cities on the Asia Minor coast, in the summer of that same year, Alexander moved southwards. He conquered Perge, Aspendus and Side and laid siege to Sillyon. However, the rebellion of Aspendus led him to stop the siege. After he crushed the rebellion he turned unsuccessfully towards Termessus. Then he laid siege to Sagalassos, since nearby Selge -the great adversary of Termessus and Sagalassos those years- had signed a treaty with him, ensuring its independence.
13. The participation of the people of Termessus in defending Sagalassos clearly reflects the close relations between the two cities.
14. Arr. Anab. Ι.28.
15. The occupation of the city was without great losses for the two sides, since only 500 Pisidians and 20 Macedonians lost their lives. Among the victims was Cleandrus, friend of Alexander.
16. During the period of Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD) the battle is depicted on coins, while the city's theatre was oriented towards Alexander's hill. See Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos. History and Archaeology”, in M. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1991) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 42.
17. Liv. 38.15. The price ammounted to 50 talants and 20,000 medimnoi of barley and wheat.
18. The fact that there were building programmes of similar magnitude to other Pisidian cities during that same period indicates the general conditions of prosperity and peace that were prevalent in the area in the middle of the 2nd century BC.
19. Already from the end of the 4th century BC a genaral process of Hellenization has started in Pisidia, which was completed in the Hellenistic years, and influenced mainly state organization and institutions, as well as architecture. The way of life in these cities was directly influenced by the Greek one. Greek deities were worshipped in the temples and gradually they superceded the local cults. In addition, the cities had bouleuteria, something that indicates a democratic regime with the participation of the citizens.
20. The great flourishing of the local sculpture workshops that produced the ossuaries with relief decoration, a characteristic of the Hellenistic years, can be considered as the result of cultural influences from Pergamum. The style of these works refers to models from Pergamum, so it probably reflects a directed policy in the field of culture, which sprung from central authority in Pergamum itself.
21. The geographical boundaries of the province of Cilicia were vague.
22. Strabo 12.570. The list includes the cities Selge, Sagalassos, Pednelissos, Adada, Tymbriada, Kremna, Pithysos, Amblada, Anabura, Sinda, Aarassus, Tarbassos and Termessus.
23. Initially Gaul was organized as an imperial province.In 6/5 BC it was reinforced with the kingdom of Paphlagonia, in 3/2 BC with the kingdom of the Gaulic Pontos, in 34/5 AD with Komana of Pontos, in 64/5 AD with Polemoniac Pontus and in the years of Vespasianus with the lands of Cappadocia and Armenia Minor. In 43 AD the dual province of Lycia-Pamphylia was created by Claudius.
24. Lanckoronski, Κ., Städte Pamhyliens und Pisidiens. II. Pisidien, (Wien-Prague-Leipsig 1892) pp. 224-225, 227, no. 188, 189, 191, 203.
25. In the middle of the 7th century AD the citizens left Salagassos and settled in the nearby village Aĝlasun.
26. Lucas was travelling from Attaleia to Sparta of Pisidia, when he saw the impressive ruins of ancient Salagassos, which he interpreted as castles belonging to various cities.
27. The man who identified the ruins with Sagalassos, based on an inscription, was the British F. V.J. Arundell. Regarding the travelers that visited Sagalassos and their works, see Waelkens, M., "Sagalassos. History and Archaeology" in Μ. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1001) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 40.
28. Lanckoronski, Κ., Städte Pamhyliens und Pisidiens. II. Pisidien (Wien-Prague-Leipsig 1892). For more than a century this publication was a valuable guide regarding ancient Pisidian cities. Particularly informative are the excellent quality architectural drawings of public buildings.
29. This is a research programme widely known as "Sagalassos Project", with the participation of scientists of different nationalities specialized in various research fields. The results of the research are published in the series Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia and Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology, while particularly informative is the programme's web site http://www.sagalassos.be (10/05/2005), which is continually updated for the course of the research.
30. The ruins of the ancient city cover an area of 2.5 kms on the east-west axis and 1.5 kms from the north to south. The fact that the buildings have been preserved very well is because they have been buried due to erosion. Furthermore, difficult access at such a high altitude allowed the preservation of the surviving architectural components as building material.
31. The influence of the architectural tradition of Pergamum is evident in Sagalassos, both in the general city planning and in the form and decoration of the houses. A characteristic example is the irregular roods, which follow the natural morphology.
32. A fact indicative for the importance of this gate for the city was its reinforcement with a massive defensive polygonal tower.
33. In spite of all these, it is not certain if it was completed during the period when Sagalassos was under Pergamum control, given that the exact date of its construction is not known.
34. They were decorated with friezes with relief decoration, which depicted shields of Macedonian type. The theme is common to many reliefs found in Sagalassos and date from the Hellenistic and Roman years. It is related to the presence of Macedonians to Sagalassos itself or its lands, in the years following the death of Alexander, who were directly involved in the Hellenization of the city but also to its later development. See Kosmetatou, E., Waelkens, M., “The «Macedonian» Shields of Sagalassos”, in M. Waelkens, J. Poblome (ed.), Sagalassos IV. Report on the Survey and Excavation Campaigns of 1994 and 1995 (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 9, Leuven 1997) pp. 277-291.
35. The name of Caligula has been erased from the monument and has been replaced by Claudius. See Lanckoronski, Κ., Städte Pamhyliens und Pisidiens. II. Pisidien (Wien-Prague-Leipsig 1892) p. 230, no. 221.
36. The term Macellum denotes either the slaughterhouse, or a type of commercial agora which consists of an atrium, which was surrounded by stoas, stores and had a circular building at its centre, while its function differed. About the Macellum of Sagalassos see De Ruyt, C., Macellum, Marché Alimentaire des Romains (Louvain 1983) pp.188-190.
37. It was not accessible from the agora, but it was parallel to it, while the entrance was through doors on the northern wall.
38. Mitchell, S., “The Hellenization of Pisidia”, MeditArc 4 (1991) table 8,3.
39. The four corners of the naiskos were worked as slightly projecting pilasters with elaborated worked Corinthian capitals, which rather reflect Seleucid influences, like the ones of the capitals at Olympeion in Athens (175-164 BC), than modern Asia Minor tendencies in architecture.
40. Their artistic style is influenced by the famous Gigantomachy from the Altar of Zeus in Pergamum, as well as the relief pottery of Pergamum. See Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos. History and Archaeology”, in M. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1991) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 43, note 63, where the relevant bibliography. These excellent quality reliefs, like the friezes of the Dorian temple and the bouleuterion with armament themes, are attributed to local sculpture workshops, which continued the production until the late 1st century BC.
41. After the completion of the excavation researches in 1998, began the programme for the restoration of the building.
42. The stage was constructed in 180-200 AD.
43. In the 2nd century AD there were repairs at the western wall that was damaged from earthquakes and they added a wall on the open southern side of the building limiting the entrance. In the end of the century they paved the area between the spring and the library of Neon which was on the north. In the 6th century AD the spring was not longer outdoors and was used for collecting water. The restoration of the building was completed in 1997 with great success, since it was possible to operate it again.
44. In the middle of the 4th century AD there were some repairs at the building, which was decorated with a mosaic floor.
45. The potters' district covered a vast area between the theatre, the eastern gate, the mountainous range on the north and the cemetery on the east. The workshops that have been uncovered date from the Late Hellenistic Period to the beginning of the 6th century AD. Besides the workshops, they have found molds, wastes from the furnaces, numerous pots that were not properly baked, as well as deposits.
46. The rebuilding of the temple was carried out by the family of Flavius Collega. For a reconstruction in drawing of the facade during the second phase of the temple, see Waelkens, M. et al, “Sagalassos 1989”, AnatSt 40 (1990) p. 187, fig. 2.
47. For a reconstruction in drawing of the two buildings' facade, see Mitchell, S. et al, “Ariassos and Sagalassos 1988”, AnatSt 39 (1989) p. 69, fig. 3.
48. It is the architectural type of the nymphaeum with a facade decorated like the scaenae frons of a theatre. It had more than one floors, and the facade wall was decorated with columns that create niches and aediculae (small temples), where they placed statues. The first examples of nymphaeums with a theatre-like facade were erected in Miletus and Ephesus in around 80 AD. See Mitchell, S. et al, “Ariassos and Sagalassos 1988”, AnatSt 39 (1989) p. 73, note 32.
49. The peculiar architectural type of the Salagassos baths is unique. It is possible to detect certain similarities with some rectangular baths in eastern Pamphylia and Cilicia. See Farrington, S., “Imperial Bath Buildings in South-West Asia Minor”, in S. Macready, F. H. Thompson (ed.), Roman Architecture in the Greek World (The Society of Antiquaries in London Occasional Papers-New Series 10, London 1987) p. 54 onwards.
50. The total dimension of the temple was 82,40Χ60,40 metres. For a reconstruction of the facade in drawing see Waelkens, M. et al, “Sagalassos 1989”, AnatSt 40 (1990) p.192, fig.5.