Sagalassos (Antiquity)

1. Location

Sagalassos is in southwestern Turkey, 7 kilometres to the north of the modern city of Aĝlasun in the province of Burdur, within about 110 km from the port of Attaleia. The ancient city was under the administration of Pisidia, the mountainous geographical region in western Taurus.1 Apart from the imposing massifs, the lakes Burdur, Eğridir and Beyşehir2 as well as the rivers Kestros, Melas and Eurymedon are distinctive features of the geomorphology of the area.

2. Strategic Importance and Natural Resources

Sagalassos was one of the most important cities of ancient Pisidia. In Antiquity the city developed rapidly mainly thanks to its mountainous position, which made it a natural stronghold, and its ample natural resources. It was built on a series of natural terraces facing south, at an altitude between 1490 and 1600 metres, on the southern sides of Aĝlasun Mountain. The imposing limestone massif of a range, extending until the inaccessible crests of Akdağ Mountain (2271 m), dominates to the north. The green fertile valleys enclosing today the outskirts of Aĝlasun opened up to the south. Access from north was almost impossible, while the road leading to the city from the south was also rough. Fortifications built in the Hellenistic years were additional defence, thus making Sagalassos almost unconquerable. The region was watered by rich sources,3 which not only covered the needs of the increased population of Sagalassos and its region, but also accumulated water reserves.4 The rare combination of the mountainous position and water sufficiency gave the city a clear advantage over the rest of Pisidian cities. The region of Sagalassos was significantly expanded and had rich limestone rock beds, mined intensively. Limestone was the raw material for the famous sarcophaguses manufactured in local workshops in the imperial years.5

In antiquity the city was surrounded by forests of cedars, pines and oaks.6 In addition, Sagalassos had intensively cultivated fertile land. One of the main agricultural products was corn, whose crops were so abundant that towards the late 2nd century AD there were reserves supplying the Roman legions stationed in Syria.7 In the region of Sagalassos there was extensive stock breeding thanks to the vast areas of pasture near the southern coasts of Lake Burdur. Finally, a most important economic source was the famous red coated local pottery, whose exportable products were in great demand in the markets of both the north and the west.8

3. Historical Background

A paradox about archaeological research in Sagalassos is the lack of findings from the middle and late Copper Age.9 However, the existence of humans in Pisidia these periods is certain, as evidenced by Hittite sources.10 In classical years the region was inhabited by different peoples including Milyades, Pisidians and Solymoi, the second being the master people, notorious for their warlike character.

Sagalassos came into the spotlight as lately as 334 BC,11 when it was conquered by Alexander the Great.12 The inhabitants resisted strongly, supported by a small number of Telmessians, although they did not manage to repel the Macedonian troops.13 According to Arrian, who has handed down the events in detail, Sagalassos was a quite powerful city, inhabited by the most warlike people in the whole region.14 The resistance was mainly put up on the conical hill dominating the southern gate of the city, later reasonably named ‘Alexander’s Hill’.15 It is worth mentioning that much later the public opinion thought of Alexander’s victory as something positive, for a new period started then for them.16

After the Macedonian king died (323 BC), in the framework of the subsequent War of Successors, the city came briefly under Alcetas, the youngest brother of Perdiccas, Alexander’s general. The city was then governed by Antigonus I Monophthalmos (‘One-Eyed’ /320-301 BC) and Lysimachus (301-281 BC). In the 3rd century BC Pisidia gradually became the bone of contention among the rest of the powers of the region. Thus, it probably came briefly under the control of Attalus I of Pergamon (c.228-223 BC), while between 218-216 BC the city was governed by Achaeus, the usurper of the Seleucid throne. After Achaeus was defeated and executed, it is possible that Antiochus III the Great managed to bring Pisidia again under Seleucid control from 216 until 193 BC.

The next time Sagalassos is mentioned in historical sources is associated with the first Roman military operations in Pisidian land. After Antiochus III the Great was defeated by the Romans in the battle of Magnesia (190 BC), the treaty of Apamea (188 BC) granted Pisidia to Pergamon. The following year the inhabitants of Sagalassos painfully experienced for the first time the consequences of Roman military action in the framework of a large-scale military operation by the Roman consul Lucius Manlius Vulso in Asia Minor, who aimed to consolidate Roman control in Galatia. As Roman soldiers were free to loot the territories they crossed, the cost for the inhabitants was particularly heavy. The rich land of Sagalassos was so much plundered that the city authorities bribed the Romans with large sums of money in order to get rid of them.17

The predatory attacks of Vulso against Sagalassos clearly prove the prosperity of the city in Hellenistic years, owed mainly to its rich crops. Prosperity is also reflected in the increased building activities towards the end of the 2nd century BC, when the first imposing public buildings were made.18 Sagalassos was then one of the most powerful cities of Pisidia and followed the Greek institutions, political system and way of living.19 Despite the continuous succession of powers governing the region, the city was able to considerably maintain its autonomy as regards the management of interior matters until the late imperial period, which proves that the inhabitants, apart from their high morale, had the means to carry their points to the rulers. While the Attalid domination left the city almost unharmed as regards interior matters, it deeply affected Sagalassos in matters of culture, as clearly proven in most aspects of artistic creation. The centre for all this cultural activity must have been the neighbouring Attaleia, founded by Attalus II, probably acting at the same time as the centre for the spread of the civilisation of Pergamon over the entire Pisidia.20

In the years that followed the bequest of the kingdom of Pergamon to Rome in 133 BC the picture is unclear, since the newly formed province of Asia did not include Pisidia. According to one version, the region came under the jurisdiction of Ariarathes V of Cappadocia, while it is equally possible that it regained its independence. It is likely that a small part of Pisidia was briefly included in the province of Cilicia.21 In 39 BC Marc Antony ceded a part of the province and Pisidia to Polemon I. Shortly later, the reorganisation of Asia by Augustus resulted in the considerable expansion of Galatia. Thus, King Amyntas briefly took control of Pisidia, while after he died in 25 BC his kingdom was incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia. It was the start of Roman domination in Sagalassos. It is worth mentioning that despite its engagement in that political turmoil, the city continued to prosper throughout the 1st century BC and, what is more, it was beautified with splendid public buildings. The last time the city appears before the Roman era is in a list of Pisidian cities compiled by the geographer Artemidorus of Ephesus, dating from about 100 BC and preserved by Strabo in the years of Augustus.22 In the following years the territory of Galatia varied in size.23 Sagalassos was finally incorporated into the double province of Lycia-Pamphylia maintaining this status until the late 3rd century AD.

The city had its heyday in the imperial period. Sagalassos was then the most powerful city of the region, the ‘First in Pisidia’, according to inscriptions24 and prospered in every area of activity. Peace and political stability created the ideal basis for a tremendous economic development. In addition, the proximity of the city to one of the most important commercial routes of the time, leading from Pamphylia to Apamea of Phrygia, was sharply against the former rival city of Selge, which, although a close competitor so far, remained a runner-up in every aspect. A temporary and slight decline in building activity towards the late 1st century AD was probably owed to earthquakes or other natural disasters. In the 2nd century AD the city was beautified again with imposing buildings, while the great number of coins minted proves the city’s prosperity. Sagalassos does not seem to have been directly affected by the Gothic raids of 255-277 AD and the war between the Romans and Septimia Zenobia (Aramaic Znwbyā Bat Zabbai, queen of the Roman colony of Palmyra, in present-day Syria, from 267 or 268 to 272 AD) in 270 AD. On the contrary, those last years the city’s economy also benefited from corn trade conducted with Syria. Decline started in the early 5th century AD because of the Isaurian threat, a major factor of destabilisation in the following years, as the famous Pax Romana was a thing of the past. At the turn of the next century a devastating earthquake caused terrible disasters, but the inhabitants managed to partly rebuild the city. The Arabic raids in the mid-7th century AD as well as a new earthquake gave Sagalassos the final blow and the city never managed to recover again.25 In recent years the city was forgotten until it was ‘discovered’ again in the 17th century by the French rambler Paul Lucas, who arrived in the region by chance.26 From then on, lots of ramblers gave descriptions and made drawings of the impressive remains of Sagalassos.27 The most detailed study was carried out between 1884-1885 by the Polish count Karol Lanckoronski, in the framework of his monumental work on the ancient cities of Pisidia and their monuments.28 Partial and small-scale archaeological research followed, intensified after 1986 with the collaboration of both British and Belgian archaeologists. An ambitious inter-scientific project started in 1990 under the auspices of the University of Leuven, which has brought to light multiple aspects of the unknown past of the city so far.29

4. City Plan and Architecture

The building remains of Sagalassos are particularly extensive and impressive, since several public buildings have been preserved in good condition.30 The city is planned according to the Hellenistic building model, used in the cities of Pisidia in the Hellenistic years, including a fortification wall, Agora, Bouleuterion, temples and commercial zones.31 Access was from north, south and east. The northern entrance, above a steep ravine, was inaccessible. The eastern gate was very important for the city, since here was the road leading to the aqueducts in the east.32 The cemeteries with tomb monuments of different morphological types were on the city’s outskirts to the northwest, south and west. Distinctive features are the ossuaries, typical Hellenistic constructions, the Roman sarcophagi, manufactured in local workshops as well as the vaulted Christian tombs in catacombs, dating from late antiquity.

The wall of Sagalassos was built in the Hellenistic years in order to further strengthen the natural fortification of the city. It should be noted that the peace of the imperial years made the wall useless and, as a result, it was pulled down. When the city needed to be fortified again in late antiquity, a new defensive enclosure was built near the eastern entrance, with previously used building material.

The residential centre of the Hellenistic city was on the highest terrace, the so-called ‘upper city’. Public life was centred around the agora of the 2nd century BC. Its trapezoid shape is reminiscent of the Agora of the neighbouring Cremna, while there are influences of the architectural tradition of Pergamon as well.33 In the years of Augustus (31 BC -14 AD) the Agora was beautified with statues of local benefactors mounted on 10-metre columns. Later on, the Agora was partially girded with archways and embellished with two imposing arches.34 The one of them was originally built in honour of Caligula (37-41 AD), while after he was assassinated in 41 AD, it was dedicated to his successor Claudius (41-54 AD).35 In the southeastern corner of the upper Agora there was the Macellum or food market, built in the years of Emperor Commodus (180-192 AD).36

One of the most imposing monuments of the upper city was the distyle in antis Doric temple to the northwest of the Agora. It was inside a sacred precinct and access was by means of monumental stairs in the south. Opinions differ on the period it was made, as some researchers include it in the architectural tradition of Pergamon, while others date it back to the early imperial years. The temple was probably dedicated to the eastern god Kakasbos, probably identified with Zeus or Herakles, while its central position proves the important role it played in religious life. The remains of the Bouleuterion, built towards the late 2nd century BC, are between the Doric temple and the Agora. The two-storey building –now almost in ruins– was built on a terrace, its western side partly carved on a rock, while in the north there was a small yard.37 The Bouleuterion of Sagalassos is quite similar to the Ecclesiasterion of Priene, with an almost square ground plan and parallel rows of stone seats on the three sides. On the eastern wall facing the Agora there were high quality reliefs of almost natural size, depicting Athena beside a defeated warrior and Ares with a captive woman.38

To the northwest of the Agora there was the so-called Heroon, the first large-scale public building made in the city. It dates back to the third quarter of the 2nd century BC and was a distyle in antis Corinthian small temple with podium, rising to a total height of 15.3 metres.39 Its architecture is reminiscent of the famous Lycian Nereid Monument, today in the British Museum. In the lower part of the eastern, southern and western facade there was a relief frieze depicting female dancers (or Muses) in ¾ of the natural size.40 The Heroon housed a statue, probably up to 4 metres high. The use of the monument remains unknown, as no inscriptions associated with it were found in the excavations. Perhaps it was a cenotaph or an honorary monument for some foreign sovereign or eminent citizen. Around 400 AD the Heroon was incorporated into the new defensive wall of the city.41

The Roman theatre, the most imposing and best preserved monument of Sagalassos was to the east of the Agora. Built at an altitude of 1574 metres on a sloping plane, its southwest foundation comprised a complicated system of vaulted corridors. The architect of the theatre designed a skene with only one floor, aiming to offer the audience an exceptional view of the scenery, where Alexander’s Hill dominated.42 The remains of the Doric fountain, partly carved on a slope and built in the 1st century BC, are between the Agora and the theatre. The monument faced southeast and comprised three Doric archways enclosing a yard.43 The Library of Neon was built to the north of the fountain in the imperial years (shortly after 120 AD), being quite similar to the famous Library of Celsus in Ephesus.44 The quarter of the potters, which played a very important role in the city’s life throughout antiquity, extended to the east.45 Around 115 to 125 AD a small temple, probably dedicated to god Dionysus, was built in the northwestern corner of the city, while its architecture shares common features with the Temple of Hadrian in Ephesus.

In the imperial years the city expanded to the lower terraces, where new splendid public buildings were built. In the years of Augustus or a little later, in Tiberius’ years (14-37 AD), the Agora of the lower city –probably formed already from the late Hellenistic years– was adorned with an imposing gate in the southwest, preserved in very bad condition. It had two parts and was 13 m wide, adorned with Corinthian columns and a frieze with relief decoration. About the same period, an Ionic peripteral temple (with 6Χ11 columns), dedicated to Apollo Clarius, was built on the western hill, after the latter was formed with analemmatic walls. The temple was inside a sacred precinct of a mixed Doric and Ionic architectural style. In Hadrian’s years the temple was reconstructed from marble, as it had suffered extensive damages because of an earthquake, and was once again dedicated to Apollo Clarius and the emperors.46 The temple was possibly dedicated to the emperors because it was the first time the city had been awarded the honorary title of Neokoros. In the early Byzantine years, the temple was transformed into a Christian basilica. To the north of the Agora, in the lower city, was the odeum of the late 1st or the early 2nd century AD, shaped like a semicircular indoor theatre. The building may have had a seating capacity of up to 3,000, while today it is in very bad condition. In the following years it was extensively restored, while in Hadrian’s years (117-138 AD) a nymphaeum was built next to the theatre.47 It had two floors on the front side and was adorned with elaborate reliefs depicting riverine gods and nymphs.48 The imposing cluster of the baths of the 2nd century AD, one of the largest in southern Asia Minor, was to the east of the Agora.49 Some of its sides had three floors, while the southwestern side followed the morphology of the terrain, aiming at the longest possible exposure to the sun, the source of light and heat. In later years, the eastern side was transformed into a vaulted gymnasium.

One of the most imposing public buildings dominating the centre of the lower city was the Corinthian peripteral temple, built on a terrace and surrounded by a huge sacred precinct with archways.50 The temple had a long pronaos with a richly decorated door and a small cella. The exceptional relief decoration of its architectural features reflects the craftsmanship of local stone dressers and safely dates the temple back to Hadrian’s years. The temple was completed in the years of Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD), to whom it was dedicated, being the main place of imperial worship in the city from then on.

1. Many cities flourished in Pisidia from the Hellenistic to the Late Imperial Period and their destinies were intertwined.

2. For this reason it is called today "Area of the Lakes".

3. Even nowadays there are two springs in the archaeological site, one in the potters' district and a second to the nymphaeum of the imperial years.

4. Water reached the city through aqueducts on the east and west. Regarding the complex water supply system of Sagalassos, see Steegen, A. et al, "The Water Supply to Sagalassos", in Μ. Waelkens, L. Loots (ed.), Sagalassos V. Report on the Survey and Excavation Campaigns of 1996 and 1997 (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographie 11A and B, Leuven 2000) pp. 635-649.

5. The quarry from which they excavated the limestone was on the east of the city, at a distance of 2 kilometres.

6. The dense population of the city and the intensive operation of the pottery workshops led to the gradual deforestation of the surrounding areas already from antiquity.

7. The corn is frequently appeared in coins, mainly the coins minted by Valerianus I (253-260 AD) and Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD). About the theory this relates this iconographic type with the supply of the Roman legions, see Weiss, P., "Pisidien: eine historische Landschaft im Lichte ihrer Münzprägung", in. Schwertheim (ed.), Forschungen in Pisidien (Αsia Minor Studien 6, Münster 1992) pp.160-163.

8. In close proximity to the city there were reserves of clay of excellent quality. Regarding the local styles of red coloured pottery, see Poblome, J., Sagalassos Red Slip Ware. Typology and Chronology (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 2, Turnhout 1999) and Degeest, R., The Common Wares of Sagalassos. Typology and Chronology (Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology 3, Turnhout 2000).

9. The ending of the placename "-ssos", made some researchers consider it as evidence of human presence in the area of the city already from the 3rd millennium or even earlier. In spite of all these, the ending is common in the names in other Pisidian cities, which emerge on the historic foreground in the Hellenistic Period, such as Ariassos and Pednelissos. See Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos. History and Archaeology”, in M. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1991) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 41, note 42.

10. Sagalassos during the historic years was probably identified with the mountainous city "Salawassa", which is mentioned in Hittite sources. About the most recent findings of archaeological research regarding the first traces of habitation in the city, see Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos and Pisidia during the late Bronze Age”, in M. Waelkens, L.Loots (ed.), Sagalassos V. Report on the Survey and Excavation Campaigns of 1996 and 1997 (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 11A and B, Leuven 2000) pp. 473-485.

11. The sources mention a rebellion of the Pisidian cities against the Persians, but without a special mention to the city. Xenophon, Anabasis. 1.1.11.

12. After the battle of Granicus and the liberation of the Greek cities on the Asia Minor coast, in the summer of that same year, Alexander moved southwards. He conquered Perge, Aspendus and Side and laid siege to Sillyon. However, the rebellion of Aspendus led him to stop the siege. After he crushed the rebellion he turned unsuccessfully towards Termessus. Then he laid siege to Sagalassos, since nearby Selge -the great adversary of Termessus and Sagalassos those years- had signed a treaty with him, ensuring its independence.

13. The participation of the people of Termessus in defending Sagalassos clearly reflects the close relations between the two cities.

14. Arr. Anab. Ι.28.

15. The occupation of the city was without great losses for the two sides, since only 500 Pisidians and 20 Macedonians lost their lives. Among the victims was Cleandrus, friend of Alexander.

16. During the period of Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD) the battle is depicted on coins, while the city's theatre was oriented towards Alexander's hill. See Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos. History and Archaeology”, in M. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1991) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 42.

17. Liv. 38.15. The price ammounted to 50 talants and 20,000 medimnoi of barley and wheat.

18. The fact that there were building programmes of similar magnitude to other Pisidian cities during that same period indicates the general conditions of prosperity and peace that were prevalent in the area in the middle of the 2nd century BC.

19. Already from the end of the 4th century BC a genaral process of Hellenization has started in Pisidia, which was completed in the Hellenistic years, and influenced mainly state organization and institutions, as well as architecture. The way of life in these cities was directly influenced by the Greek one. Greek deities were worshipped in the temples and gradually they superceded the local cults. In addition, the cities had bouleuteria, something that indicates a democratic regime with the participation of the citizens.

20. The great flourishing of the local sculpture workshops that produced the ossuaries with relief decoration, a characteristic of the Hellenistic years, can be considered as the result of cultural influences from Pergamum. The style of these works refers to models from Pergamum, so it probably reflects a directed policy in the field of culture, which sprung from central authority in Pergamum itself.

21. The geographical boundaries of the province of Cilicia were vague.

22. Strabo 12.570. The list includes the cities Selge, Sagalassos, Pednelissos, Adada, Tymbriada, Kremna, Pithysos, Amblada, Anabura, Sinda, Aarassus, Tarbassos and Termessus.

23. Initially Gaul was organized as an imperial province.In 6/5 BC it was reinforced with the kingdom of Paphlagonia, in 3/2 BC with the kingdom of the Gaulic Pontos, in 34/5 AD with Komana of Pontos, in 64/5 AD with Polemoniac Pontus and in the years of Vespasianus with the lands of Cappadocia and Armenia Minor. In 43 AD the dual province of Lycia-Pamphylia was created by Claudius.

24. Lanckoronski, Κ., Städte Pamhyliens und Pisidiens. II. Pisidien, (Wien-Prague-Leipsig 1892) pp. 224-225, 227, no. 188, 189, 191, 203.

25. In the middle of the 7th century AD the citizens left Salagassos and settled in the nearby village Aĝlasun.

26. Lucas was travelling from Attaleia to Sparta of Pisidia, when he saw the impressive ruins of ancient Salagassos, which he interpreted as castles belonging to various cities.

27. The man who identified the ruins with Sagalassos, based on an inscription, was the British F. V.J. Arundell. Regarding the travelers that visited Sagalassos and their works, see Waelkens, M., "Sagalassos. History and Archaeology" in Μ. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1001) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 40.

28. Lanckoronski, Κ., Städte Pamhyliens und Pisidiens. II. Pisidien (Wien-Prague-Leipsig 1892). For more than a century this publication was a valuable guide regarding ancient Pisidian cities. Particularly informative are the excellent quality architectural drawings of public buildings.

29. This is a research programme widely known as "Sagalassos Project", with the participation of scientists of different nationalities specialized in various research fields. The results of the research are published in the series Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia and Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology, while particularly informative is the programme's web site (10/05/2005), which is continually updated for the course of the research.

30. The ruins of the ancient city cover an area of 2.5 kms on the east-west axis and 1.5 kms from the north to south. The fact that the buildings have been preserved very well is because they have been buried due to erosion. Furthermore, difficult access at such a high altitude allowed the preservation of the surviving architectural components as building material.

31. The influence of the architectural tradition of Pergamum is evident in Sagalassos, both in the general city planning and in the form and decoration of the houses. A characteristic example is the irregular roods, which follow the natural morphology.

32. A fact indicative for the importance of this gate for the city was its reinforcement with a massive defensive polygonal tower.

33. In spite of all these, it is not certain if it was completed during the period when Sagalassos was under Pergamum control, given that the exact date of its construction is not known.

34. They were decorated with friezes with relief decoration, which depicted shields of Macedonian type. The theme is common to many reliefs found in Sagalassos and date from the Hellenistic and Roman years. It is related to the presence of Macedonians to Sagalassos itself or its lands, in the years following the death of Alexander, who were directly involved in the Hellenization of the city but also to its later development. See Kosmetatou, E., Waelkens, M., “The «Macedonian» Shields of Sagalassos”, in M. Waelkens, J. Poblome (ed.), Sagalassos IV. Report on the Survey and Excavation Campaigns of 1994 and 1995 (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 9, Leuven 1997) pp. 277-291.

35. The name of Caligula has been erased from the monument and has been replaced by Claudius. See Lanckoronski, Κ., Städte Pamhyliens und Pisidiens. II. Pisidien (Wien-Prague-Leipsig 1892) p. 230, no. 221.

36. The term Macellum denotes either the slaughterhouse, or a type of commercial agora which consists of an atrium, which was surrounded by stoas, stores and had a circular building at its centre, while its function differed. About the Macellum of Sagalassos see De Ruyt, C., Macellum, Marché Alimentaire des Romains (Louvain 1983) pp.188-190.

37. It was not accessible from the agora, but it was parallel to it, while the entrance was through doors on the northern wall.

38. Mitchell, S., “The Hellenization of Pisidia”, MeditArc 4 (1991) table 8,3.

39. The four corners of the naiskos were worked as slightly projecting pilasters with elaborated worked Corinthian capitals, which rather reflect Seleucid influences, like the ones of the capitals at Olympeion in Athens (175-164 BC), than modern Asia Minor tendencies in architecture.

40. Their artistic style is influenced by the famous Gigantomachy from the Altar of Zeus in Pergamum, as well as the relief pottery of Pergamum. See Waelkens, M., “Sagalassos. History and Archaeology”, in M. Waelkens (ed.), Sagalassos I. First General Report on the Survey (1986-1989) and Excavations (1990-1991) (Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia Monographiae 5, Leuven 1993) p. 43, note 63, where the relevant bibliography. These excellent quality reliefs, like the friezes of the Dorian temple and the bouleuterion with armament themes, are attributed to local sculpture workshops, which continued the production until the late 1st century BC.

41. After the completion of the excavation researches in 1998, began the programme for the restoration of the building.

42. The stage was constructed in 180-200 AD.

43. In the 2nd century AD there were repairs at the western wall that was damaged from earthquakes and they added a wall on the open southern side of the building limiting the entrance. In the end of the century they paved the area between the spring and the library of Neon which was on the north. In the 6th century AD the spring was not longer outdoors and was used for collecting water. The restoration of the building was completed in 1997 with great success, since it was possible to operate it again.

44. In the middle of the 4th century AD there were some repairs at the building, which was decorated with a mosaic floor.

45. The potters' district covered a vast area between the theatre, the eastern gate, the mountainous range on the north and the cemetery on the east. The workshops that have been uncovered date from the Late Hellenistic Period to the beginning of the 6th century AD. Besides the workshops, they have found molds, wastes from the furnaces, numerous pots that were not properly baked, as well as deposits.

46. The rebuilding of the temple was carried out by the family of Flavius Collega. For a reconstruction in drawing of the facade during the second phase of the temple, see Waelkens, M. et al, “Sagalassos 1989”, AnatSt 40 (1990) p. 187, fig. 2.

47. For a reconstruction in drawing of the two buildings' facade, see Mitchell, S. et al, “Ariassos and Sagalassos 1988”, AnatSt 39 (1989) p. 69, fig. 3.

48. It is the architectural type of the nymphaeum with a facade decorated like the scaenae frons of a theatre. It had more than one floors, and the facade wall was decorated with columns that create niches and aediculae (small temples), where they placed statues. The first examples of nymphaeums with a theatre-like facade were erected in Miletus and Ephesus in around 80 AD. See Mitchell, S. et al, “Ariassos and Sagalassos 1988”, AnatSt 39 (1989) p. 73, note 32.

49. The peculiar architectural type of the Salagassos baths is unique. It is possible to detect certain similarities with some rectangular baths in eastern Pamphylia and Cilicia. See Farrington, S., “Imperial Bath Buildings in South-West Asia Minor”, in S. Macready, F. H. Thompson (ed.), Roman Architecture in the Greek World (The Society of Antiquaries in London Occasional Papers-New Series 10, London 1987) p. 54 onwards.

50. The total dimension of the temple was 82,40Χ60,40 metres. For a reconstruction of the facade in drawing see Waelkens, M. et al, “Sagalassos 1989”, AnatSt 40 (1990) p.192, fig.5.