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Praxiteles

Author(s) : Corso Antonio (11/4/2002)

For citation: Corso Antonio, "Praxiteles", 2002,
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=10583>

Praxiteles (7/27/2006 v.1) Πραξιτέλης (7/27/2006 v.1) 
 

1. Birth-family

Praxiteles was born probably in Athens around 395 BC. He had the Athenian citizenship and was probably of the deme of Sybridai.1 His father was probably Kephisodotos the Elder, the best-established Athenian bronze sculptor between 390 and 370 BC.2

Kephisodotos’ sister married Phokion, a politician and a pupil of Plato. Through this marriage, his family must also have established ties with the political leadership of Athens as well as with the world of the Academy.3

2. Education – upbringing

Kephisodotos must have been the master of Praxiteles, who had been initiated to the art of sculpture in the studio of his father.

The general Timotheos, who reestablished Athenian hegemony with the Panhellenic Peace of 374 BC, commissioned from Kephisodotos a bronze sculptural group of Peace holding the baby Ploutos (= Wealth).4 So, the upbringing of Praxiteles must have taken advantage of the political protection of this general on his father and workshop. During his youth, Praxiteles must have begun to specialize in marble sculpture, in keeping with the growing taste for sculpture with a marble surface and with the idea that marble sculpture was a revelation of what already exists within the marble, a concept consistent with Plato’s condemnation of imitation in the visual arts.5

3. Biography

3.1. Relationships

Praxiteles’ first recorded work, dated to 375 BC, has been commissioned from him probably by the general Timotheos.6 He may have become well established thanks to the political support of this general.

His link to Plato is argued by the marriage of his aunt with Phokion, a pupil of Plato, by the fact that a couple of epigrams in praise of the Aphrodite of Knidos is attributed to Plato7 as well as by the fact that an epigram composed by Praxiteles in order to explain the message of his Eros set up at Thespiae echoes the Platonic concept of love.8

Praxiteles is known to have worked for statues promoted by Athenian ladies devoted to the cult of Eleusis9 as well as by patrons of choregic monuments.10 The patron of a statue made by Praxiteles and set up at Leuktra is known through an inscription.11 The notice that Praxiteles has worked for the Mausoleion of Halikarnassos12 implies that he must have been linked to the royal house of Caria. Moreover, the fact that Praxiteles’ statues were standing in antiquity in Athens, Megara, Corinth, Argos, Mantinea, Olympia, Elis, Plataeae, Thebae, Thespiae, Lebadia, Delphi, Antikyra, Kos, Cnidus, Parion, Olbia Pontica, Ephesus, Alexandria on the Latmos and Myra implies that he must have been in contact with patrons and purchasers of statues from these centres.13

The Spartans had commissioned from him an Aphrodite in the late 340s, but refused to accept the statue made by Praxiteles, because the courtesan Phryne had been used as the model, even if the Athenian sculptor tried in vain to persuade the Spartans to accept his Aphrodite.14

Three artists are known to have grown up in Praxiteles’ workshop: the Athenian painter Nikias, who in his youth was applying colours to the surfaces of the marble statues of Praxiteles;15 the bronze sculptor Herodotos from Olynthos, who collaborated to a bronze statue by Praxiteles of the courtesan Phryne;16 and finally Papylos, a pupil of our sculptor.17

3.2. Ideology

Praxiteles must have been wealthy, if he could afford to love the most famous, and certainly also the most expensive, courtesan of the time, Phryne. Moreover, he was one of the 300 or so Athenians who had to pay the public dues.18

His family’s engagement with the oligarchic politician Phokion and his link with Plato’s Academy make it likely that he had oligarchic opinions. An oligarchic ideology has been argued also from the main features of his art.19

3.3. Private and family life

Praxiteles’ great love was Phryne, a refugee from Thespiae living in Athens. This love affair began in 367-366 BC. Praxiteles created an Eros in order to express his own condition as slave of love towards Phryne, declaring this message in an epigram inscribed on the base of the statue.

He presented Phryne with this statue and she dedicated it in the sanctuary of Eros at Thespiae. This Eros was the left-hand statue for the viewer of a triad, which had the portrait of Phryne in the middle and Aphrodite on the right. Phryne was glorified as the best way for the earthly world to know the heavenly love (Eros) and the heavenly beauty (Aphrodite). A fragment of a letter of Phryne to Praxiteles with her comment on the triad of Thespiae is extant.20

Praxiteles made the Aphrodite of Cnidus using Phryne as model for the body of the goddess.21 Moreover, this woman was the model also of Praxiteles’ bronze statue of a merry courtesan.22 This sculptor gave again to Aphrodite the body of Phryne when the Spartans commissioned from him a statue of this goddess. The Spartans refused this statue, since Aphrodite in Sparta was worshipped as the goddess of the love inside the marriage and not of the love with courtesans.23 The Thespians ordered Praxiteles a gilded statue of Phryne to be set up on a high column in Delphi.24

One day Praxiteles realised he was no longer a slave to love and he represented this in his Sleeping Love.25 The courtesan Kratine was another lover of Praxiteles as well as his model for the face of the Aphrodite of Cnidus.26 A third courtesan, Glykera, is also reported as Praxiteles’ mistress.27

Praxiteles was married and had two sons, the elder being named Kephisodotos (distinct as ‘the Younger’ from an earlier namesake who had been probably Praxiteles’ father) and the younger Timarchos.28 Both of them worked as sculptors. Kephisodotos the Younger succeeded to Praxiteles at the helm of his workshop when Praxiteles retired, probably in 334 or soon afterwards.29

4. Work

Praxiteles composed at least a couple of written works and a very great number of sculptures.

4. 1. Written works

His two literary works are an epigram, on the meaning of his statue of Eros set up at Thespiae,30 and a Speech to the Spartans, held in Sparta, with the hope to convince them to accept a statue of Aphrodite made by him for this city-state.31

4. 2. Sculptures: works made by Praxiteles when he was young

More than 70 sculptures are attributed to Praxiteles by the ancient tradition. The most important of them, as well as Praxiteles’ statues set up in centers of Asia Minor, are considered here:

  • Bronze statue of the Archer Eros, made around 367 BC and known through the copies of a sculptural type which is named, after its best copy, the Farnese-Steinhaeuser type: this early creation expresses already the need to define internal emotions rather than external materialistic situations.32
  • Bronze statue of the Wine-pouring Satyr, dated to around 366-365 BC, whose best copies can be found at Dresden and Palermo. The sculptor defines with this statue a world characterized by grace, kindness, beauty and youth.33
  • Marble triad of Eros, Phryne and Aphrodite at Thespiae, dated to around 366-365 BC. The Eros, which can be recognized in the sculptural type named Centocelle after its best copy, which comes from Centocelle, near Rome, was represented as a sad figure, the personification of the Platonic ideal of suffering for love. Aphrodite, identifiable in the type, which takes its name after its most important copy, found at Arles, in southern France, was half-naked. Her smooth surfaces, rendered with a never-ending play of light and shade, suggested a world of sensual and fabulous beauty.34

4. 3. Sculptures: works made by Praxiteles when he was mature

In the late 360s Praxiteles, emboldened by his success, became more daring and carved Aphrodite in all her beauty, naked. This marble statue was purchased by the Cnidians and was afterward known as

  • The Aphrodite of Cnidus. The fame of the Aphrodite of Cnidus established the reputation of its master throughout the Greek world. Works of Praxiteles’ mature and late years (360-334 BC) were set up in many centers both of Greece and of Asia Minor.
  • The bronze Resting Satyr, probably of the early 350s, known through more than 100 copies, shows an accentuated S-shaped curve. Such a study in the leaning figure, coupled with the placement of the figure of the Satyr in the forest, became an emblem of a remote Arcadia, for which a search in the city would be in vain.35
  • The bronze lizard-slayer Apollo (ca. 355 BC), known through several copies, was also a leaning figure. Apollo’s teenage appearance and playful attitude indicate the importance of youth as a value associated with the ideals of beauty and love.36 It is possible that Praxiteles’ original statue has been made for the town of Apollonia on Rhyndakos, in Mysia, as this statue appears inside a temple on coins of this center of Asia Minor.37
  • Marble statues of Praxiteles had been set up on the Mausoleion of Halicarnassus (towards 350 BC), according to the Roman writer Vitruvius.38 It is possible that surviving fragments of free-standing sculptures from the southern side of the Mausoleion had been made in the workshop of Praxiteles, as they reveal a light-and-shade rendering of the surfaces and a folding which are typically Praxitelean. Moreover, a few lions marked with the letter pi reveal the predilection for sinuous lines and may therefore also come from this workshop.39

4. 4. Sculptures: works made by Praxiteles during the last period of his activity

Praxiteles’ late works are characterized by the accentuation of the rendering of the surfaces through plays of light and shade, making the image inconsistent and dreamlike. These works also fulfilled a taste for elegant figures that would excite the hedonistic gratification of the viewer.

  • Praxiteles’ statue of Eros, made for the city of Parion in Propontis (to be dated around 350 BC), is represented on coins of this town and is imitated, rather than copied, with statues of the Roman period. The two closest Roman variations from this masterpiece have been found on Kos and at Gortys. The large wings of the god and his drapery define a backcloth. The reproduction, on the viewer’s left side of the figure, of the local old devotional herm of the god enlarges the figure on this side, whilst the gaze of Eros looks far. This creation is conceived according to a theatrical mentality, which dominates the late production of this master.40
  • The marble slabs of Mantinea on which the contest between Apollo and Marsyas in the presence of the Muses is represented on relief. These slabs decorated probably the base of the triad of Apollo, Artemis and Leto at Mantinea, made by Praxiteles and should be therefore attributed to the workshop of this master (ca. 445 BC). That subject is depicted through a variety of gracious styles.41
  • The statue of Hermes carrying the baby Dionysus at Olympia has been found exactly where the Greek writer Pausanias had seen it. Pausanias had specified that it was a work by Praxiteles (towards 340 BC). Hermes is resting on a tree-trunk. He is holding the baby Dionysus with his left arm. His right arm is raised. The style of Hermes reveals a predilection for S-shaped figures resting on vertical supports and for surfaces of statues characterized by soft styles.42
  • The marble head of Eubouleus (early 330s BC), known through both the original bust and 10 copies, was rendered in an accentuated impressionistic style.43
  • Marble sculptures decorating the altar of the sanctuary of Artemis at Ephesus had been made by our master, probably towards 334 BC.44 A relief frieze, of which a miniature reproduction of the Sciarra type of Amazon survives, and fragments of draped figures, which once decorated the altar and derived from the Mantinean Muses, reveal the typical taste for vanishing outlines, which characterizes the late Praxitelean production.45
  • The Petworth marble head of Aphrodite is also typical of Praxiteles’ late style, with its surface play of light and shade:46 it may echo therefore the last Aphrodite of Praxiteles, made for the sanctuary of Adonis in Alexandria on the Latmos in Caria, soon after the foundation of this town by Alexander in 334 BC.47
  • Finally, Praxiteles made a miniature statue in a precious green stone of Leto enthroned for Myra in Lycia, probably soon after the conquest of the region by Alexander in the fall of 334 BC.48 The late-Praxitelean interpretation of Leto enthroned is recognized on a vase-painting of the Baltimora painter (around 320 BC): the goddess is characterized by a Praxitelean anatomy of the face and by a drapery very close to the ones of the female figures associated to the Mantinean base, coupled with a sumptuousness of the throne of oriental flavor.49

In conclusion, it is possible to assert that Praxiteles has translated the Platonic disengagement from the world of the city-state into figurative terms, fleshing out a world populated of beautiful, young and immortal beings, a remote and enchanted fable, which foreshadows the happy Arcadia of the Hellenistic period.

5. Other pieces of information

Nothing is known of Praxiteles’ appearance. It is possible to argue from the surviving fragments of his Speech to the Spartans50 that he was very bold, even arrogant, asserting that the exceptional artist must enjoy the freedom to change traditional iconographies and to invent new ones and that the society has to accept these innovations. The late-classical individualistic concept of visual arts had been therefore theorized already by Praxiteles.

6. Death

The elder son of Praxiteles, Kephisodotos the Younger, is registered several times in lists of the wealthy class of Athenians who had to pay the public dues, dated to the 330s and 320s BC. The name of Kephisodotos is followed by the name of his father, Praxiteles, until 326 BC, whilst the latter name is never reported after this date. It is possible to argue from this observation that Praxiteles died probably in 326 BC.51

7. Evaluation and judgements

7. 1. Judgements by contemporaries

Praxiteles had been very successful as a sculptor. During the late phase of his production, Praxitelean style becomes the dominant one at Athens and is very diffused throughout the Greek world.

However, the Koans refused to buy the naked Aphrodite, which will be sold to the Cnidians, for moral reasons towards 360 BC.52 Moreover, the Spartans refused to accept a statue of Aphrodite by Praxiteles, as it was thought to advertise the love between men and courtesans, in the late 340s.53

Finally, Praxiteles’ statue of the courtesan Phryne at Delphi had been criticized by the Cynics, who regarded it as a trophy of the lasciviousness of the Greeks, from the 330s onward.54

So, the public opinion which was more anchored on the values of the city-state did not approve entirely the hedonistic message of Praxiteles’ art.

7. 2. Judgements by posterity

7. 2. 1. From the early-Hellenistic period until the Roman middle-Imperial times

During the early-Hellenistic times, Theocritus, Leonidas of Tarentum and Herodas refer to our sculptor:55 his fame seems to rely both on the high quality of his works (see Theocritus) and on the opinion that he fleshed out an internalized concept of love (see Leonidas).

During the middle-Hellenistic times, the widespread nostalgia towards the Attic art of the 5th century BC paves the way to the assertion that Praxiteles was not as good as Phidias.56 However, Praxiteles’ art is up-dated in the middle-Hellenistic ‘baroque’ culture of Asia Minor and he is now regarded as the master of the fire of passion.57

In the eclectic culture of the late-Hellenistic period, the notion that the perfect work is an anthology of elements taken from different sources involves the principle that the best features of Praxiteles’ art should be re-used and joined together with the best ones of the other most important classical Greek masters, in order to obtain the perfect statue.58

Moreover, Roman writers of the period include Praxiteles among the figures of the Greek culture, which is important to know.59 This period corresponds to the first boom of a copyist production derived from masterpieces of Praxiteles.

During the Augustan period, Praxiteles received the due homage in the contemporary literature, but without enthusiasm, no doubt because the Greek 5th century art was beloved at that time.60

In the Roman early-Imperial times, Praxiteles’ art is sometimes felt as artificial61 and at times criticized for moral reasons in the Latin literature.62 Assertions that Praxiteles has infused life into his statues, giving them an unrivalled charm, are repeated belatedly.63

However, during the neo-sophistic period, a great enthusiasm is felt towards Praxiteles’ art, as the most eloquent visual symbol of Greece in the good old days, i. e. in the period of the middle and new comedy, when the courtesans were important figures of the Greek society.64 Not by chance, the production of copies from Praxiteles’ statues became very intense during this period.

7. 2. 2. From late-antiquity onwards

Praxiteles is often attacked as the emblem of a seducing and hedonistical art, which corrupts the societies, in the Christian apologetic literature.65

The last Pagan writers regard Praxiteles sometimes as a magician, who was able to introduce the personalities of the deities into his statues,66 and always consider his art as an important component of the Pagan heritage which must be preserved and admired.67 However, the importance of Praxiteles is accepted also in Christian literature from the 4th century AD onwards.68 Praxiteles, together with other ‘old’ masters, is regarded sometimes as the symbol of a colorless art, which is far from life, during the early middle age.69

However, from the early 10th century AD onwards, the growing nostalgia towards the ancient Greek art, regarded now as a lost paradise, determines in the middle Byzantine culture, a wide-spread research aiming at the rediscovery of Praxiteles’ art and style, which continues until our days.70

8. Overall evaluation

Praxiteles lived in a society, which was quickly changing, from the narrow environment of the Greek city-state towards the universal empire, which will be created by Alexander.

Praxiteles provided this society with an art and a style which were much needed, i. e. disengaged from the values of the city-state and appealing to and seducing the internal feelings and dreams of single individuals.

That is why Praxiteles’ art has been enormously successful both in his days and throughout many generations to come.

1. See P. M. Fraser - E. Matthews (ed.), A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names 2 (Oxford 1994) p. 379, s. v. Praxiteles (38).

2. Knell, Η., Athen im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Darmstadt 2000) p. 74-80. Moreover, M. Weber, “Kephisodotos (I)”, in R. Vollkommer (ed.), Künstlerlexikon der Antike 1 (Muenchen 2001) p. 408-410.

3. Knell, H., Athen im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Darmstadt 2000) p. 79-80 and 111, notes 109-111.

4. Knell, H., Athen im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Darmstadt 2000) p. 74-80. Moreover, M. Weber, “Kephisodotos (I)”, in R. Vollkommer (ed.), Künstlerlexikon der Antike 1 (München 2001) p. 408-410.

5. Corso, A., “Praxiteles and the Parian Marble”, in D. Schilardi - D. Katsonopoulou (ed.), Paria lithos (Athens 2000) p. 234-235.

6. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 15-17, inscription no. 1. However, many scholars do not accept this conclusion: see, for example, Martinez, J. - L., “La colonne des danseuses de Delphes”, CRAI (1997) p. 35-45.

7. Plato, Anthologia Graeca 16. 160-161. On these epigrams, see Corso, A., “Small Nuggets about late-classical Sculpture”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 29 (2000) p. 150-151. Havelock, C. M., review to I. Jenkins - G. B. Waywell (ed.), Sculptors and Sculpture of Caria and the Dodecannese (London 1997), AJA 103 (1999) p. 154, does not believe on an influence of Plato on Praxiteles.

8. Praxiteles, in Athenaeus 13. 591 a = Anthologia Graeca 16. 204. See Corso, A., “Love as Suffering”, BICS 42 (1997-1998) p. 63-91.

9. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 17-18 and 20-21, inscriptions nos. 2 and 7.

10. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 25-27, inscription no. 13; Pausanias 1. 20. 1-2 and 9. 27. 3; and Athenaeus 13. 591 b.

11. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 20, inscription no. 6.

12. Vitruvius 7. praefatio 13. There are scholars who do not believe that Praxiteles has worked for the Mausoleion: see Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 307.

13. For a nearly complete list of works of Praxiteles, see Stewart, A., Greek Sculpture. An Exploration (New Haven - London 1990) p. 277-278.

14. Choricius, Declamationes 8 and Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 3 (Rome 1992) p. 27-110.

15. Pliny 35.122 and especially 133.

16. Tatian, Oratio ad Graecos 33. 35.

17. Pliny 36.34.

18. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 25-27.

19. Lauter, H., “Zur wirtschaftlichen Position der Praxiteles-Familie im spätklassischen Athen”, AA (1980) p. 525-531 and Corso, A., “Prassitele e la tradizione mironiana”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 18 (1989) p. 85-117.

20. Phryne, in Alciphron 4.1, frg. 3. Evidence supporting the present reconstruction of the development of the love of Phryne with Praxiteles has been given in Corso, A., “Love as Suffering”, BICS 42 (1997-1998) p. 63-91.

21. Athenaeus 13. 591 a.

22. Pliny 34. 70. This statue is probably the statue of Phryne made by Praxiteles and Herodotos (Tatian, Oratio ad Graecos 33. 35).

23. Choricius, Declamationes 8 and Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 3 (Rome 1992) p. 27-110. This statue is probably the Aphrodite in the act of putting on a necklace, mentioned by Pliny 34. 69 as well as by Tatian 34. 36.

24. Corso, A., “The Monument of Phryne at Delphi”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 26 (1997) p. 123-150.

25. Scholiast R to Pausanias, p. 144 Spiro.

26. Clement, Protrepticus 4. 47 P and Arnobius 6. 13.

27. Strabo 9. 2. 25. 410; Eustathius, Ilias 2. 498; and Scholiast G to Lucian, Amores 17.

28. Andreae, B., “Kephisodotos (II)”, in R. Vollkommer (ed.), Künstlerlexikon der Antike 1 (München 2001) p. 410-411.

29. Especially Pliny 36. 24. No Praxiteles’ work dates after 334 BC.

30. Praxiteles, in Athenaeus 13. 591 a = Anthologia Graeca 16. 204. See Corso, A., “Love as Suffering”, BICS 42 (1997-1998) p. 63-91.

31. Fragments of this Speech are reported by Choricius, Declamationes 8, praefatio 4; recitatio 19; 47; 57; 65-67; and 86.

32. Callistratus 3; moreover Corso, A., “Love as Suffering”, BICS 42 (1997-1998) p. 67.

33. Pausanias 1. 20. 1-2 and 9. 27. 3; and Athenaeus 13. 591 b; Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 246-248.

34. Corso, A., “Love as Suffering”, BICS 42 (1997-1998) p. 63-91.

35. Pliny 34. 69 and Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 250.

36. Pliny 34. 70; Martial 14. 172; Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 248-250.

37. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 84. However, Rolley does not share this view: see Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 248, note 64.

38. Vitruvius 7. praefatio 13. There are scholars who do not believe that Praxiteles has worked for the Mausoleion: see Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 307.

39. Waywell, G. B., The Free-standing Sculptures of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (London 1978) p. 10-11; 33-34; catalogue, nos. 32; 44; 46-47; 49; 56-58; 110; 165; 229; 401; 407; and 410-411. See Corso, A., “Prassitele: l’arte dell’Ideale”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 27 (1998) p. 409.

40. Pliny 36. 22; Palladas, Anthologia Graeca 16. 207; and Tzetzes, Chiliades 5. historia 11. 502-511. On Roman imitations from this statue, see Romeo, I. - Portale, E. C., Gortina 3. Le sculture (Padua 1998) p. 179-182.

41. Pausanias 8. 9. 1 and Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 252-255.

42. Pausanias 5. 17. 3. See Corso, A., “The Hermes of Praxiteles”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 25 (1996) p. 127-148. Several scholars do not believe that this statue dates to the time of Praxiteles: see, e. g., Rolley, C., La sculpture grecque 2 (Paris 1999) p. 250-254.

43. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 29-30, inscription no. 17, and Corso, A., “Prassitele: l’arte dell’Ideale”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 27 (1998) p. 415.

44. Artemidoros, in Strabo 14. 1. 23. 641: this notice is linked, in Strabo’s text, to happenings of the year 334 BC.

45. Corso, A., “Prassitele: l’arte dell’Ideale”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 27 (1998) p. 417.

46. Raeder, J., Die antiken Skulpturen in Petworth House (West Sussex) (Mainz a. R. 2000) p. 34-36, no. 1.

47. Stephanus Byzantinus, s. v. Alexandreia and Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 3 (Rome 1992) p. 7-18.

48. Anonymus Graecus, Codex Vaticanus Graecus 989, fol 110, and Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 3 (Rome 1992) p. 158-163.

49. Corso, A., “Prassitele: l’arte dell’Ideale”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 27 (1998) p. 418.

50. Fragments of this Speech are reported by Choricius, Declamationes 8, praefatio 4; recitatio 19; 47; 57; 65-67; and 86.

51. Lauter, H., “Zur wirtschaftlichen Position der Praxiteles-Familie im spätklassischen Athen”, AA (1980) p. 525-531.

52. Pliny 36. 20.

53. Choricius, Declamationes 8 and Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 3 (Rome 1992) p. 27-110.

54. Corso, A., “The Monument of Phryne at Delphi”, Numismatica e antichitá classiche. Quaderni Ticinesi 26 (1997) p. 123-150.

55. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 44-46, sources nos. 5-10.

56. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 47-48, sources nos. 12-13.

57. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 48-51, sources nos. 14-17.

58. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 52, source no. 18.

59. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 53-61, sources nos. 19-23.

60. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 61-70, sources nos. 24-28 and 30.

61. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 65-66, source no. 29.

62. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 70-71, source no. 31.

63. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 71-117, sources nos. 32-44.

64. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 1 (Rome 1988) p. 117-185, sources nos. 45-61; 2, p. 14-26 and 36-82, sources nos. 64-65 and 67-70; and 3, p. 168-169, source no. 60 bis.

65. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 2 (Rome 1990) p. 7-14; 26-36 and 82-90, sources nos. 62-63; 66 and 71; 3, p. 170, source 79 bis.

66. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 2 (Rome 1990) p. 95-139, source no. 73.

67. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 2 (Rome 1990) p. 91-95; 139-148 and 153-163, sources nos. 72; 74-75 and 78-79; 3, p. 169-170, source no. 78 bis.

68. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 2 (Rome 1990) p. 148-153, sources nos. 76-77; 3, p. 3-117, sources nos. 81-86.

69. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 2 (Rome 1990) p. 163-166, source no. 80; 3, p. 117-120, source no. 87.

70. Corso, A., Prassitele: fonti epigrafiche e letterarie. Vita e opere 3 (Rome 1992) p. 120-167, sources nos. 88-97.

     
 
 
 
 
 

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