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Iassos (Antiquity)

Author(s) : Mechtidis Petros , Paleothodoros Dimitris (6/15/2005)
Translation : Dimitriadou Daphne , Tselekas Panayotis

For citation: Mechtidis Petros, Paleothodoros Dimitris, "Iassos (Antiquity)",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=8771>

Ιασός (Αρχαιότητα) (2/6/2006 v.1) Iassos (Antiquity) (2/15/2006 v.1) 

1. Name and location of the site

Iassos (Kiyi Kişlacık) is one of the most important cities of Caria, on the shores of the Iassos gulf, between the cities of Miletus and Mylasa. Alternatively, two variations of the name of the city exist, Iasos and the written form Iassos which is later in date. Two toponyms from the city have survived in inscriptions, Bridas and Tyennessos.1

2. History of Iassos

Iassos was inhabited since the Neolithic period. An especially significant Early Bronze Age (3rd millenium) settlement appears to have flourished greatly. Iassos was one of the great Minoan establishments in Asia Minor (1900 to 1550 BC). The expanding Minoan small town was succeeded by a large Mycenaean settlement (1500 to 1250 BC), which, as it seems, was under the influence –more accurately the direct control- of the Argive Mycenaeans.2

This situation is outlined in the foundation myth of the Greek city by the Argives. An initial attempt by the colonists was hold off by the Carians of the area. Eventually, the city was founded with the co-operation of the Milesians, under Neleus’ son.3 The foundation date is placed in 900 BC. Initially, the colonists settled on an island which today is joined to the shore.4 The especially strong influence from the Dodecanese in the Geometric period, which can be traced in the shapes and decorative motives on Carian pottery, is succeeded by the Milesian influence in the 7th – 6th cent. BC. This is concluded by the archaeological finds since nothing is known on the history of the city before the 5th cent. BC.5 The discovery of inscriptions on pots in the Carian language confirms the existence of Carian population in the city.6 It is obvious that Iassos supported the Ionians during the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt (499-494 BC). During the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC, Iassos belonged to the Athenian League.7 Since 414 BC at the latest, it operated as the seat of the rebel Amorges, an illegitimate son of the satrap Pissouthnis, who had revolted in 423 BC. Amorges had secured Athenian support in violation of earlier treaties. With the encouragement of the satrap of Ionia Tissaphernes the Spartans and their Syracusan allies captured the city, enslaved the citizens and set up a garrison.8 However, the city soon revolted, expelled the Spartan governor and rejoined the Athenian League. In 405 BC, it is reported that the Spartan admiral Lyssander recaptured the city and ordered the murder of 800 adult males and the enslavement of the women and children.9

In the end of 5th cent. BC, or rather in the period 394-391 BC, Iassos was a member of an alliance (known only from numismatic evidence) with Byzantium, Ephesus, Cnidus, Cyzicus, Lampsacus and Samos.10 In the 4th cent. BC. based on a decree of the city, Iassos belonged to the Carian dominion of Mausolus (367-354 BC). The decree refers to the exposure of a plot against Mausolus and the city itself.11 During the siege of the neigbouring Miletus by Alexander in 334 BC, Iassos took part in the Persian attempt to break it by sending a ship, which was captured by the Macedonians.12 The Democratic leaders of the city, the brothers Gorgos and Minnion, by supporting Alexander managed to extend the borders of the city including certain lands.13

After the death of the monarch of Caria Ada, the city was apparently captured by the army of the Macedonian satrap of Caria Asander. It was this army that in 313 BC Polemaios, a general of the Antigonids, defeated. He recaptured the city and set up his forces there.14 Iassos remained under the Antigonid control until 309 BC when the city passed into the hands of Ptolemy I, who guaranteed by treaty the freedom, autonomy and exemption from paying taxes or accommodating troops.15

During the 3rd cent. BC, the city was –by name at least- independent and held a special position at the sanctuary of the Great Gods in Samothrace, as this is attested by a series of inscriptions bearing the names of donors from Iassos.16 In around 220 BC, Olympichos of Alinda sent Podilos to raid the city’s territory, apparently obeying the orders of his suzerain Philip V of Macedonia.17 According to the most acceptable interpretation of various philological references, the city was captured by the Macedonian expeditionary force under Philip V in September 201 BC. It remained under their control until 197/196 BC, when the senatorial envoy demanded that the Macedonians should evacuate the Asiatic cities.18 A little earlier, presumably in 199/198 BC, Iassos, along with the rest of the coastal Caria, was hit by a disastrous earthquake. After the Macedonians left, Antiochus III by offering freedom and autonomy was able to recover his former influence on the city.

The wife of the king, Laodice III, gave a large quantity of wheat as well as money for the dowries of the daughters of the poor citizens, thus earning divine honours for herself and her husband while a gymnasium in Iassos was called Antiocheion.19 Antiochus banished his political opponents and during the war with the Romans set up a garrison in the city. In addition, he saw that judges from other cities came to Iassos.20

In 190 BC the Romans besieged Iassos and the city was saved only through the interference of its exiles who asked the Rhodians to intervene. The latter persuaded the Romans to stop the siege.21 After the Peace of Apamea (188 BC), Iassos, along with the rest of Caria, came under the control of Rhodes and remained there until c. 167 BC when it gained its independence. The early years following the war were hard because, due to financial difficulties, the city could not afford to organize the Dionysia, while the return of the exiles who were friendly to the Romans possibly resulted in tension.22 In around the end of the 180s BC, Iassos was responsible for the Dionysia, which were celebrated anew, and received embassies from Eumenes II, who invited the Iassians to participate at the Nicephoria.23 In the mid-2nd cent. BC, Iassos resorted to fund-raising (eranos) in order to buy grain.24 In 129 BC, the city became part of the province of Asia and became a center of attraction for the Italian merchants who settled there.25

During the 1st Mithridatic war, Iassos supported the king of Pontus, a decision that proved hazardous since after 86 BC pirates, who were Sulla’s allies, raided the city at the Roman general’s tolerance.26 Since then Iassos enjoyed a notable tranquility and flourished in a peaceful environment. During Hadrian's time, the city was especially decorated with magnificent buildings. It was destroyed probably during an Herulian raid in ca. 269 BC but it was rebuilt anew.

3. Institutions and economy

From Aristotle’s work The Iassian Constitution almost nothing is preserved. However, the epigraphical sources indicate that most probably Iassos had a democracy, at least during the 4th cent. BC.27 The city had a council (boule) while an assembly (ekklesia) gathered once a month under the supervision of an epistates. Although the responsibility for the introduction of the decrees was taken by the prytaneis, there were also decrees brought in by the boule and the deme following the Athenian practice. The famous ekklesiastikon was the sum paid to the citizens who attended the meetings.28 The decrees were made public by the officials called neopoiai: these epigraphic texts were set up either in the sanctuary of Apollo or in the Archives. The eponymous archon of the city was called stephanephoros.29 The overall picture of the government mechanism is known through the detailed account of the exposure of the plot against Mausolus and the auctioning of the confiscated belongings of the guilty involved. Four archons are mentioned along with four treasurers, two police officials, four advocates, six prytaneis, eleven priests of Zeus Megistos and last, the representatives of the tribes.30 In another resolution, the prostatai are mentioned as well.31

The inscriptions allow a reconstruction of the system of dividing the citizens into tribes. Head of each tribe was the neopoies. There were apparently six tribes.32

Iassos has always been a flourishing city. Its main resources were the rich-in-fish nearby seas and the marble quarries in its territory. After the conquest of Caria by Alexander the Great Iassos was greatly benefited by the addition to its territory of an especially rich sea area.33

4. Cults and coinage

The most important cults were those of Apollo, of Zeus Megistos and of Artemis Astias, which are epigraphically testified at least since the 4th cent. BC.34 The cult of Dionysus is also mentioned in inscriptions as well as a portico of Poseidon which hypothetically is placed in the area of the later bouleuterion.

The coinage of the city is especially interesting.35 As an autonomous mint, Iassos began in the 5th cent. BC to strike silver coins following the Aeginetan weight standard. The main type on the coins is the local hero Hermias riding a dolphin. The myth of the boy with the dolphin from Iassos, whom Alexander placed as a priest of Poseidon in Babylon, was based on this type.36 Other significant types that appear during the period of the independent coinage of the city include the laurel-crowned head of Apollo, his lyre, the bust of Artemis, the figure of the goddess hunting, the busts of both children of Leto. Rarer appear the head of Zeus, the head of Athena Pallas, the Carian double-axe and the Athenian owl. After 167 BC, and more specifically during the period of the first Roman administration, the coinage of the city was enriched with new types like the head of the founder of Iassos, the head and the crown of Isis, the personifications of the Senate and Tyche. During the Roman Imperial period Iassos continued to strike coins, this time bronze, until the reign of Severus Alexander (AD 238-244). Among the types are the heads of Arian Zeus, of Cerberus, of Serapis, of Isis and of Dionysus, the cult statue of Artemis Astis, Apollo on a four-horse chariot and naturally, Hermias on the dolphin.

5. Intellectual life

Very few are the illustrious men of intellect from Iassos whose name and deeds have survived in the literary sources.37 The most eminent is the epic poet Choerilus, who had the reputation of one among the worst poets and the greatest flatterers of Alexander the Great.38 It is said, that Alexander had promised him a gold coin for every good verse he would compose and a slap for every bad one. The quantity of bad verses was such that Choerilus died of slapping. Another important man of Iassos was the philosopher Diodorus, son of Ameinias and a student of Appolonius of Cyrene, a famous disciple of the dialectic method and a member of the Ptolemaic court in the end of the 4th cent. BC.39 According to rumours, because Diodorus could not answer the questions of the Megarian philosopher Stilpon at a symposium he receiver Ptolemy’s contempt and died of shame. Hermokrates was a notable grammarian and linguist and a contemporary of Callimachus (1st half 3rd cent. BC).40 Last, the epigraphic sources refer to a tragic poet Dymas, who was honoured in Samothrace for his drama Dardanus.

6. Topography

Eventhough Iassos was known, since the 18th cent., to the travelers, no excavations were conducted there until the 1960s, when Italian expeditions began working on the site.41 Excavation haven’t been completed yet and the restoration works on the most important buildings are still at an early stage. However, the topography of the city during various historical periods is fairly well-known.

7. Fortifications

The city is surrounded by walls (total length 2.400 m.). This is much longer than the figure given by Polybius when he described the events of 190 BC. It is probable that the Hellenistic wall encompassed a smaller area than that which the 4th cent. BC wall did. This is dated to the time of Alexander the Great.42 A large part of this wall was destroyed in the 19th cent. and its courses were used for the construction of a waterfront in Istanbul. Very few parts survive: a small portion to the south, a gate to the southeast and a Byzantine gate. However, the general ground-plan of the wall is known to a large extent thanks to the early reports and plans by travelers and researchers.43 The main gate was looking to the narrow isthmus that connected the island to the mainland, was 4,6 m. wide and was surrounded by two big four-sided towers (each side was 8 m. long). A smaller gate was located to the north. There was another row of towers. This was an especially meticulous-made wall of local marble in isodomic masonry, with some trapezoidal courses in-between.

What constitutes with certainty the greatest puzzle in the history of the city is a second wall in the mainland.44 It is 2 m. thick, 3.5 km. long and in various places 5.5 m. high. The wall is protected by at least 18 circular towers with arrow slits and is built of limestone and schist irregular blocks. The main gate was situated at the point where the wall turned by 90o and was 2.5 m. wide. It is thought that it was used for purely military purposes and that it was constructed in the time of Alexander the Great. However, the view that connects it to the occupation of the city by Philip V is quite appealing because of the hasty manner the wall was built in as well as the big differences in its construction and planning vis-à-vis the city wall.45

8. Inland cemeteries

Apart from the wall, there are no inland public buildings. Since the 3rd millennium BC, the area was covered by cemeteries. To the east and northeast of the area lies a series of monumental graves dated to the Hellenistic and Roman period. Among them are the so-called Horologion and the Fish Market, which in reality was a mausoleum, as well as some scattered Roman sarcophagi. To the south of the mausoleum the impressive remains of an important Roman aqueduct are preserved.46

9. Description of the monuments inside the walls

Inside the Byzantine eastern gate, at the northeastern part of the island, the remains of the temple of Zeus Megistos are found, as this is testified by an inscription found in situ that marked the sanctuary’s boundaries. The stylobate of the temple has been excavated and is possibly dated to the 2nd cent. BC. The temple must have housed the cult of Hera. In the small square in front of it, the remains of a small marble temple were unearthed that had two columns in antis on its façade and probably functioned as a treasure. A nearby depository contained extremely rich and significant finds including an Attic kouros dated to 520 BC and an Attic black-figure crater with an inscription in Carian inscribed on the lip.47 Very close to the sanctuary lie the remains of a Byzantine basilica.

The theatre of Iassos is located in approximately the middle of the island, of which the skene survives from the Roman period when it was reconstructed. The base of a statue of Justice and column fragments, which formed part of the scene decoration, were found. On the walls of the theatre are inscriptions from the 2nd cent. BC which refer to various musical and comedy performances taken place through the sponsorships of wealthy citizens (choregiai). The cavea of the theatre has been dated to the 2nd quarter of the 2nd cent. BC, at a time when restoration works took place. The Hellenistic proscenium was also restored. The Roman skene belongs to the 2nd cent. AD when the scaenae frons was added. The theatre was made of local porous and marble. In 1849 the traveler Texier referred to 21 seats and six or seven wedges and to a cavea with a diameter of 61 m. The courses of the theatre were transported to Istanbul in the end of the 19th century.48 South of the theatre a residential complex has been excavated consisting of spacious houses, some of which were decorated with mosaics.

To the north from the theatre was the city center where the Roman Agora and the bouleuterion were situated. The Agora, which lay directly to the south of the Byzantine gate that marks the entrance to the archaeological site of Iassos, was constructed mainly during Hadrian’s time. However, its initial plan must be placed in the 4th cent. BC. Very few traces from the Hellenistic phase of the Agora have been preserved while of the earliest remains worthy of mentioning are the foundations of a temple to the south from the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. To this temple the excavators attribute an Ionic frieze bearing a four-horse chariot (tethrippon) scene.49 During the Roman period the Agora was a spacious courtyard surrounded by colonnades while its southern side was bordered by a grand basilica (in the form of a double portico). Behind this basilica lay the Bouleuterion, the temple of Artemis Astias and a small temple with two columns in antis, which was later integrated to a palaio-christian basilica. It is assumed that it was dedicated to Apollo.50

The four porticoes surrounding the Agora were made of imported marble and were decorated with reliefs and sculptures attributed to the School of Aphrodisias. The north and south porticoes were double while the east and west porticoes housed important services of the Agora, such as the Agoranomeion, the Heroon and the Library. On the southeastern corner of the Agora a spacious chamber was located by the name of Caesaraeum dedicated to the imperial cult.51

The bouleuterion is dated to around the end of the 1st cent. AD. It was constructed of local porous while the stairs and the floor were of marble. The scaenae frons, two-levelled and with Corinthian columns, was decorated with Dionysiac scenes. The orchestra was decorated with mosaics (opus sectile). The dimensions of this structure were 29,5 × 21,75 m. and its capacity has been estimated to 960 spectators.52

The sanctuary of Artemis Astias, the patron-goddess of the city, has hypothetically been identified. Apparently, it was quite significant during the Archaic and the Roman Imperial period. It consists of a broad four-sided enclosure with two closed Doric porticoes and three spacious exedrae which, based on an inscription, belong to the time of Commodus. Polybius mentioned that the temple had no roof. Even though the statue of the goddess was exposed to the natural elements Zeus took care snow or rain never to fall on his daughter.53 Important example of the local school of sculpture have been found in the area.54

Today the site of the Agora is full of monuments and graves of the Byzantine period. On the acropolis was the location of the Crusaders’ castle and the 6th cent. basilica. Traces of proto-Geometric and Geometric walls have been found there as well which, apparently, belong to the earliest colonization phase of the city. Other than that, only burial finds testify to this period.

There are references for the existence of an important sanctuary on the southern side of the island. Based on the finds (female hydria-bearer figurines) it is attributed to Demeter and Kore. During the 6th cent. BC the sanctuary contained an hearth altar (εσχάρα) and two small areas, apparently adyta for storing the sacred objects. In the 4th cent. BC a big enclosure was built inside which a portico was constructed.55 In the Roman Imperial period the sanctuary fell out of use. In its place a residential complex was set up of mostly luxurious villas. Most of the residences were decorated with mosaics. The so-called Villa of the Mosaics had a central atrium with a peristyle, surrounded by chambers decorated with wonderful mosaics.56 In another house, situated on a higher point, traces of wall-paintings were preserved.

10. Iassos during the Later Roman, the Byzantine and the Modern periods

In Late Roman times Iassos flourished into a center of the Christian faith and a bishopric under the metropolis of Aphrodisias. Among the bishops of Iassos, Themistios (421), Flacillos who participated in the Synod of Chalcedon (451), David (787) and Gregory (878) are known. The heyday of the city’s development is dated to the 6th century when numerous basilicas were built as well as a bishopric residence and a monumental tower on the southwestern corner of the island right on the harbour limits. During the Byzantine period the city continued to be inhabited. In the 12th century the important fort of the Crusaders was established in Iassos which has been preserved to this day.57

1. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985) no. 1. 

2. On the civilization of the early 3rd millennium which belongs to the broader cultural area of Anatolia, see Pecorella, P.E., La cultura preistorica di Iasos in Caria (Roma 1984). On Minoan settlement: Laviosa, Cl., “Rapporti fra Creta e la Caria nell’eta del bronzo”, Πεπραγμένα του Γ΄Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, Ρέθυμνο 1971 (Αθήνα 1973), pp. 182-190, “The Minoan Thalassocracy, Iasos and the Carian Coast”, Hagg, R. – Marinatos, N. (ed.), The Minoan Thalassocracy (Stockholm 1984),pp. 183-184 and “Cinque oggetti da Iasos”, Ειλαπίνη. Τόμος τιμητικός για τον καθηγητή Νικόλαο Πλάτωνα 1-2 (Ηράκλειο 1987),pp. 391-394. On Mycenaean settlement: Benzi, M., “I Micenei a Iasos”, Studi su Iasos di Caria (Bollettino dArte, Suppl. al n. 31-32, Roma 1985), pp. 29-34.

3. Polybius 16.12. On the foundation of the city, see Raffaelli, T., “Sulle origini di Iaso e di Alicarnasso”, Ostraka 4 (1995), pp. 307-313 and Ghini, C .P., “Iasos: i miti di origini, i racconti delle fine”, Bollettino dell’Associazione Iasos di Caria 5 (1999), pp. 22-23.

4. The foundation of the colony on an island is mentioned in Strabo 14.2.21 and Steph. Byz. see  s.v. «Iassos».

5. On the Geometric period: Özgünel, C., Karia geometrik seramiğli / Carian Geometric Pottery, I (Ancara 1979), pp. 73 ff. On the Archaic period: La Rocca, E., “Mileto e Iasos nel VII secolo a.C. Un'oinochoe del 'Middle Wild Goat Style I'”, Studi su Iasos di Caria. Venticinque anni di scavi della Missione archeologica italiana, Bollettino d’Arte Suppl. 31-32 (Roma 1987), pp. 35-46. A Milesian pot is included at the pit altar in the sanctuary of Zeus Megistos: Laviosa, Cl., “Iasos”, Encyclopedia dell’Arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, Suppl. 1992 (Roma 1993), pp. 84, fig. 106 (Fikellura style hydria).

6. The existence of the Carians in the city has been extensively discussed in: Pugliese Carratelli, G., “Cari in Iasos”, RendLinc 40 (1985), pp. 149-155 and “Ancora su Iasos e i Cari”, RendLinc 42 (1987), pp. 289-292. On the inscriptions, see also Βerti, F. – Inncoente, L., “Due nuovi graffiti in alfabeto cario di Iasos”, Kadmos 36 (1998), pp. 137-142. On Onomastics: Masson, O., “Noms cariens à Iasos”, Imparati, F. (ed.), Studi di storia e di filologia anatolica dedicati a Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli (Firenze 1988), pp. 155-157. See also Radt, W., “Ein lelegischer Grossbau bei Iasos”, IstMitt 27-28 (1977-1978), pp. 127-130. However, after the 3rd cent. the Carian names cease to exist: Robert, L., Noms Indigènes dans l’Asie Mineure gréco-romaine (Paris 1963), p. 91.

7. There are references in the eisphora lists from 450/449 (IG I³ 263 V 21) to 415/414 BC (IG I³ 290 Ι 12), 16 times in total. Iassos’s eisphora was one talent until 432/431 BC (IG I³ 280 Ι 63), an amount raised to three talents from 421/420 BC (IG I³ 285 Ι 91).

8. Amorges: Andoc. 3.29. Thuc. 8.5.3. See Badian E., From Plataea to Potidaia. Studies in the History and Historiography of the Pentecontaetia (Baltimore-London 1993),p. 54. Capture by the Lacaedemonians: Thuc. 8.28.4. It is possible that the tyrant of Xanthus was also participated as this, at least, is concluded from the Lycian version of the stele of Xanthus: Melchert, H.C., “A New Interpretation of lines C 3-9 of the Xanthos Stele”, Dobesch, G. (ed.), Akten des II. Intern. Lykien-Symposions (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaft, Denschriften 231 Bd, Wien 1993),pp. 31-34. Station of a garrison: 8.29.1. Generally on the episode, see Westlake, H.D., “Ionians in the Ionian War”, CQ 29 (1979), pp. 24-25. McNicoll, A.W., Hellenistic Fortifications from the Aegean to the Euphrates (Oxford 1997), pp. 107-108. Debord, P., L’Asie Mineure au IVème siècle (412-323 a.C.) (Bordeaux 1999), pp. 208-209.

9. The reference in Diod. Sic.’s manuscripts 13.104.5 to Carian Thasos has been corrected to Iassos by Palmer. Based on this correction it has been argued that Xen.’s, Hell. 1.1.32 remark to the Spartan harmost’s expulsion from Thasos in reality refers to Iassos. See Westlake, H.D., “Ionians in the Ionian War”, CQ 29 (1979), pp. 24-25 and Debord, P., L’Asie Mineure au IVème siècle (412-323 a.C.) (Bordeaux 1999), pp. 227. See the inscription  IG II², 3, dated to the period 409-405 BC that attests to the good relations between the Iassians and the Athenians [Lewis, D.M., Sparta and Persia (Leyden 1977) p. 91, note 43]. However, other scholars deny the connection between the events described by Xenophon and Diodorus, and Iassos: Meritt, B.D. – Wade Gerry H.T. – McGregor, M.F., The Athenian Tribute Lists, I (Oxford 1939),p. 492, believe that only one occupation took place, that in 412 BC, while the second is due to a dating mistake by Diodorus. The correction is dismissed by Piccirilli, L., “In margine a la plutarchea Vita di Lisandro”, CCC 14 (1993), pp. 25-29. See also Fabiani, R., “Diodoro XIII 104, 7 e la presunta distruzione di Iasos del 405 a.C”, PP 52 (1997), pp. 81-104

10. On these coins see, Schönert-Geiss, Die Münzprägung von Byzantion, I (Berlin 1970), p. 126-128, nos. 856-870, pl. 35-36. Two theories exist: according to the first, the alliance was formed after 394 against Sparta: see Cawkwell, G.L., “A note on the Herakles coinage alliance of 394 B.C.”, NC (1956), p. 69-75 and “The ΣΥΝ Coins Again”, JHS 83 (1963), pp. 152-154. According to the second theory, the alliance was pro-Spartan and is dated to 391/390 BC: Cook, J.M. – Cook, J.M., “Cnidian Peraea and Spartan coins”, JHS 81 (1961), pp. 66-72. Other views that place these issues to the end of the 5th cent. cannot stand true: see Debord, P., L’Asie Mineure au IVème siècle (412-323 a.C.) (Bordeaux 1999), pp. 273-277.

11. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 1. The three anonymous sons of Peldemos, who were among the leaders of the conspiracy, enjoyed the right of proxenia, as this is attested by another inscription: SEG 36, no. 983. Id., “Karien, die Karer und ihre Nachbarn in Kleinasien”, Kadmos 37 (1998), p. 171.

12. Arr., An. 19.10-11.

13. Hornblower, S., Mausolus (Oxford 1982), p. 112 ff.· Heisserer, A.J., Alexander the Great and the Greeks of Asia Minor (Oklahoma 1980), p. 193. These two persons had an important carrier at Alexander’s side. Especially Gorgus accompanied Alexander to Persepolis, proposed a declaration of war against Athens and promoted the observance of Alexander’s decree concerning the return of the exiles to Samos: see generally Franco, C., “Iasos ellenistica tra politica e cultura”, Santi, M.F. (ed.), Studi di Archeologia in onore di Gustavo Traversari (Archaeologica 141, Roma 2004), I, pp. 383-395 and essentially  Delrieux, Fr., “Iasos à la fin du IVe siècle. Les monnaies aux fruits de mer, des fils de Théodotos au versement de l’ekklesiastikon”, REG 114 (2001), pp. 160-189.

14. Diod. Sic. 19.75.6. See generally Billows, R.A., Antigonos the One-Eyed (Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 1990), pp. 209-210 and 301-302.

15. Pugliese Carratelli, G., “Supplemento epigrafico di Iasos”, ASAtene 45-46 (1967-1968), pp. 437-445 [=Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1 – 218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 2.]· Garland, Y., “Alliance entre les Iasiens et Ptolémée”, ZPE 18 (1975), p. 193· Hauben, H., “On the Ptolemaic Iasos inscription IK-28, 1, 2-3”, EpigAnat 10 (1987), pp. 3-5. The text is dated to 309 BC. The Ptolemaic presence in Iassos is discussed by Bagnall, R.S., The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt (Leyden 1976), pp. 89-94.

16. Habicht, C., “Iasos und Samothrake in der Mitte des 3. Jahrhunderts v.Chr.”, Chiron 24 (1994), pp. 69-74.

17. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 150. Meadows, A.R., “Four Rhodian decrees. Rhodes, Iasos and Philip V” Chiron 26 (1996), pp. 251-266. See generally Crampa, J., Labraunda III. Les inscriptions (Lund 1963), pp. 86-92.

18. Capture of the city by Philip in 201 BC: this is a theory of Holleaux, M., Études d’Épigraphie et d’Histoire grecques. IV. Rome, la Macédoine et l’Orient grec (Paris 1952), p. 284 and 293. See McNicoll, A.W., Hellenistic Fortifications from the Aegean to the Euphrates (Oxford 1997), p. 109. The Rhodians asked Philip to evacuate the garrisons in Bargylia and Iassos: Polybius 18.2.3. At the meeting at Nicaea in 198/197BC, Philip refused to surrender Iassos: Polybius 18.8. The treaty of 196 BC had as a condition the freedom of Bargylia, Iassos and Pedasa: Polybius 18.44.4 and Titus Livius 33.30.3.

19. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1 – 218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 4. Sokolowski, F., “Divine Honors for Antiochos and Laodike at Teos and Iasos”, GRBS 13 (1972), pp. 171-176. Garland, Y., “Decret d’ Iasos en l’ honneur de Antiochos III”, ZPE 13 (1974), pp. 197-198. Fischer, T., “Zum Laodike-Brief an Iasos (um 195 v.Chr.) Aktenvermerk in einer hellenistischen Inschrift?”, in Studien zur Alten Geschichte. Siegfried Lauffer zum 70. Geburtstag am 4. August 1981 (Roma 1986), pp. 237-243· Bielman, A., Femmes au public dans le monde hellénistique (Paris 2002), pp. 161-165, no. 30· Sartre, M., L’Anatolie hellénistique de l’Egée au Caucase (Paris 2003), pp. 103-104. From this text (that of 195 BC) it is concluded that Antiochus had given the city its freedom before. On the earthquake, see Justin, 30.4.1-3· Pliny, NH 2.202· Plutarch, Eth. 399c· Strabo 1.3.16.Antiocheion: Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1 – 218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 93, vers.. 22-23.

20. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 73, 74, 75, 77· Pugliese Carratelli, G., “Decreti di Iasos in onore di giudici stranieri”, RendLinc 44 (1989), pp. 47-55. Crowther, C., “Iasos in the second century B.C., 3. Foreign judges from Priene”, BICS 40 (1995), pp. 91-138. The relations between Iassos and the Seleucid kings are discussed in detail in Mastrocinque, A., “Iasos e I Seleucidi”, Athenaeum 83 (1995), pp. 133-142.

21. Tit. Liv. 37.17.3-8.

22. According to Crowther, C., “Iasos in the second century B.C., 3. Foreign judges from Priene”, BICS 40 (1995), p. 118, foreign judges came to the city in order to intervene in various political disputes. Dionysia: Migeotte, L., “De la liturgie à la contribution obligatoire: le financement des Dionysies et des travaux du théâtre a Iasos au IIe siecle avant J.-C.”, Chiron 23 (1993), pp. 267-294.

23. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 6· Lambrino, S., “Lettre du roi Euméne II et décret de Iasos relatifs aux 'Nicéphoria' de Pergame”, RA 29 (1929), pp. 107-120.

24. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 2, Nr. 219-640 (IK 28.2 , Bonn 1985), no. 244.

25. Mastrocinque, A., “Gli Italici a Iaso”, Emigrazione e immigrazione nel mondo antico (Milano 1994), pp. 237-252.

26. App., Mithr. 63.

27. Hornblower, S., Mausolus (Oxford 1982), p. 111. Flensted-Jensen, P., “Karia”, Mogen Hasen, M. – Nielsen, Th.h. (ed.), An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Greek Poleis (Oxford 2004), p. 1118, see s.v. “Iasos”.On the Constitution of the Iassians, see Heracl., Lemb. 73.

28. SEG 40, no. 959 (Assembly and the ekklesiastikon, ca. 330 BC). Gauthier, P., “L'inscription d'Iasos relative à l'ekklesiastikon (I.Iasos 20)”, BCH 114 (1990), pp. 417-443· Delrieux, Fr., “Iasos à la fin du IVe siècle. Les monnaies aux fruits de mer, des fils de Théodotos au versement de l’ekklesiastikon”, REG 114 (2001), pp. 160-189.

29. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 30 (archeio), 32 (boule, deme, epistates), 42 (neopoiai and the setting up of decrees in the sanctuary of Apollo), 52 (prytaneis).

30. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 1 (367-354 BC).

31. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 20 (ca. 330 BC).

32. Jones, N.F., Public Organization in Ancient Greece: A Documentary Study (Memoirs of the Philosophical Society, Volume 176, Philadelphia 1987), p. 333· Gauthier, P., “L'inscription d'Iasos relative à l'ekklesiastikon (I.Iasos 20)”, BCH 114 (1990), pp. 425-426.

33. Strabo 14.658. On the sea-food from Iassos, see also Archestratus of Gela in Athenaeus 3.105ε. Fishery had always been the basis of the local economy: see Hicks, E.L., “Iasos”, JHS 8 (1887), pp. 83-118.

34. Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 2, Nr. 219-640 (IK 28.2 , Bonn 1985), no. 220 (Zeus Megistos) and 259 (Artemis Astias). Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 1, Nr. 1-218 (IK 28.1, Bonn 1985), no. 42 (Apollo). See also Polybius 16.12.4 (sanctuary of Artemis).

35. The only systematic study is the short introduction by Weiser, W., “Zur Münzpragung von Iasos und Bargylia” Blümel, W., Die Inschriften von Iasos, 2, Nr. 219-640 (IK 28.2, Bonn 1985), pp. 170-187 (especially pp. 170-180).

36. Athen. 13.606 c-d., Pliny, NH 9.8.27.

37. Franco, C., “Iasos ellenistica tra politica e cultura”, Santi, M.F. (ed.), Studi di Archeologia in onore di Gustavo Traversari (Archaeologica 141, Roma 2004), I, pp. 389-394.

38. On Choirilus, see especially Borszák, I., “Choirillos und Konsorten”, Tar, I. (ed.), Epik durch Jahrhunderte, Internazionale Konferenz, Szeged 2-4. Oktober 1997 (Szeged 1998), pp. 92-98.

39. On Diodorus, see especially Giannantoni, G., Socraticorum Reliquiae I (Roma 1983), pp. 73-94 and Socraticorum Reliquiae ΙΙΙ (Roma 1985), pp. 69-76.

40. Leurini, L., “Ermocrate di Iasos: un maestro dimenticato”, Bollettino dell’Associazione Iasos di Caria 6 (2000), pp. 12-14.

41. Excavations were conducted successively by Doro Levi, Clelia Laviosa and Fede Berti. The excavation reports have been published since 1961-1962 in the eriodicals Annuario della Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene e delle Missioni in Oriente, Kazı sonuçları toplantısı, Anatolian Studies and Türk Arkeologı Dergısı. An extensive preview is given by Laviosa, C., “Iasos”, Enciclopedia dell’Arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, Suppl. 1970-1992 (Roma 1994), pp. 76-85.

42. Excavations were conducted successively by Doro Levi, Clelia Laviosa and Fede Berti. The excavation reports have been published since 1961-1962 in the eriodicals Annuario della Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene e delle Missioni in Oriente, Kazı sonuçları toplantısı, Anatolian Studies and Türk Arkeologı Dergısı. An extensive preview is given by Laviosa, C., “Iasos”, Enciclopedia dell’Arte Antica, Classica e Orientale, Suppl. 1970-1992 (Roma 1994), pp. 76-85.

43. Texier, C., Description de l’Asie Mineure III (Paris 1849), pp. 135 ff., pl. 142-149· Judeich, W., “Iasos”, AM 15 (1890), pp. 137-155.

44. Bean, G.E. – Cook, J.M., “The Carian Coast, 3”, BSA 52 (1957), pp. 101-102· Judeich, W., “Iasos”, AM 15 (1890), pp. 137-155· Levi, D., “Iasos. Le Campagne di Scavo 1969-70”, ASAtene 47-48 (1969-1970), pp. 521-529· McNicoll, A.W., Hellenistic Fortifications from the Aegean to the Euphrates (Oxford 1997), pp. 111 ff.

45. On the chronology in the late 4th cent. BC: Hornblower, S., Mausolus (Oxford 1982), pp. 317. Period of Philip V (200 BC): McNicoll, A.W., Hellenistic Fortifications from the Aegean to the Euphrates (Oxford 1997), pp. 111 ff.

46. Orologion: Masturzo, N., “Il restauro della tomba monumentale chiamato l’Orologio”, Bollettino dell’Associazione Iasos di Caria 4 (1998), pp. 8-10. “Fish Market” (Balik Pazari): Parapeti, R., “Il tempietto funerario del Balik Pazari”, Bollettino dell’Associazione Iasos di Caria 2 (1996), pp. 10-11. Cemetery and aqueduct: Tomasello F., L' Acquedotto Romano e la Necropoli presso l' Isthmo, (Missione Archeologica Italiana di Iasos – II, Archaeologica 95, Roma 1991).

47. On the sanctuary and the rich finds, see. Landolfi, M., “La stipe votiva del sanctuario di Zeus” and Laviosa, C., “Il santuario di Zeus Megistos e il suo kouros arcaico”, Studi su Iasos di Caria (Bollettino d’Arte, Suppl. al n. 31-32, Roma 1985), pp. 47-56 and 59-66.

48. Johannowsky, W., “Osservazioni sul teatro di Iasos e su Altri Teatri in Caria”, ASAtene, 47-48 (1969-70), pp. 451-459.

49. Laviosa, C., “Un rilievo arcaico di Iasos e il problema del fregio nei templi ionici”, ASAtene 50-51 (1972-73), pp. 397-418.

50. Masturzo, N., “Naiskos ad edicola nell'agora di Iasos. Elementi per la definizione del tipo”, Palladio 8.15 (1995), pp. 5-14

51. Pagelo, E., “Il Foro imperiale romano. Considerazioni preliminari”, Studi su Iasos di Caria (Bollettino d’Arte, Suppl. al n. 31-32, Roma 1985), pp. 137-150.

52. Bouleuterion: Parapetti, R., “Il Bouleuterion: aspetti architettonici e decorative”, Studi su Iasos di Caria (Bollettino d’Arte, Suppl. al n. 31-32, Roma 1985), pp. 105-136 and Johannowsky, W., “Osservazioni sul bouleuterion di Ιasos”, Ostraca 3 (1994), pp. 451-454. Relief decoration: Angiolillo, S., “Il rilievo dal Bouleuterion di Iasos. Proposte di lettura”, Studi su Iasos di Caria (Bollettino d’Arte, Suppl. al n. 31-32, Roma 1985), pp. 105-108 and Bonifacio R., “Su un rilievo con scena di banchetto dal bouleuterion di Iasos”, Ostraka 3 (1994), pp. 455-465.

53. Polyb. 16.12.4.

54. Lagona, S., “Statua panneggiata dalla stoà di Artemis Astias a Iasos”, ASAtene 62 (1984), pp. 141-149.

55. Johannowsky, W., “Appunti sul santuario di Demeter e Kore”, Studi su Iasos di Caria (Bollettino d’Arte, Suppl. al n. 31-32, Roma 1985), pp. 55-58.

56. Manara, M., “Il progetto di copertura della 'Villa dei Mosaici'”, Bollettino dell’Associazione Iasos di Caria 1 (1995), pp. 9-10. On the mosaics of Iassos, which are dated to the Early Roman Imperial period and to the Palaiochristian period, see Berti, F., “I mosaici di Iasos”, III Colloquio internazionale sul mosaico antico. Ravenna 6-10 settembre 1980 (Ravenna 1983), pp. 235-246.

57. Laviosa, Cl., “Iasos”, Princeton Encyclopaedia of Classical Sites (Princeton 1977), p. 402.


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