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Author(s) : Zachos Georgios (9/11/2001)
Translation : Kalogeropoulou Georgia , Karioris Panagiotis

For citation: Zachos Georgios, "Gallienus",
Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor
URL: <http://www.ehw.gr/l.aspx?id=7537>

Γαλλιηνός (4/11/2008 v.1) Gallienus (2/3/2009 v.1) 



Term that designates a governor in general. When it is not used in a technical sense, it denotes members of the aristocracy, high officers of the byzantine empire and it is even used for independent princes.

A title initially given to Octavian in 27 BC, a few years after his victory over Mark Anthony in Actium. In Greek the epithet means "Honoured''. Eventually, the title was used to complement the names of the Roman emperors.

In the Roman Empire the title of Caesar was given to the Emperor. From the reign of Diocletian (284-305) on this title was conferred on the young co-emperor. This was also the highest title on the hierarchy of the Byzantine court. In the 8th c. the title of Caesar was usually given to the successor of the throne. In the late 11th c. this office was downgraded and from the 14th c. on it was mainly conferred on foreign princes.

equestrians, the (equites)
The lowest class of Roman aristocracy, whose economic wealth derived mainly from civil professions (bankers, publicans, merchants), yet without political privileges. The Roman Republican period was marked by their strives against the senators. The equestrians were were won over mainly by leaders who desired to promote a monarchic type of government pushing aside the Senate.

gerousia (senate)
The council of elders in Greek cities of Asia Minor. The members were chosen from the wealthy and leading families of the city.

proconsul, -lis
A quite high ranking official, vir spectabilis according to the rank of the senate, who was inequable only to the Domestikos of the Scholae and to the Magister Militum per Orientem. The proconsul usually served as a governor of the Imperial provinces (i.e. in Asia Minor the provinces of Asia and Cappadocia). The office was demoted from the 9th century onwards and the term was in use until the 12th century meaning a dignity.

Administrator of a roman Province deriving from the class of equites. He was controlled directly by the Emperor and his legati Augusti pro praetore.


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